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Full text of "Logan's History of Indianapolis from 1818. Giving a carefully compiled record of events of the city from the organization of the state government;its mercantile, manufacturing, political and social progress, course of development, present importance and future prosperity;"

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ALLEN COUNTY PU^WSi hin iimir 

3 1833 00805 4444 



- FROM 181S 

Ignatius Brov;n 




FROM 1S18. /ev-.".-x,, 


MiATI'iN <'F THF S'lWTF '^i •Vi:i:.\\f KNT : IT- AtFKl '.XTFI.E. ^.I \M"FArTri;iNO, 

I'DLITI'-AL AXF) -'^I'lAL PF;"! iriE--^. COFK-E < 'F ! 'EVFL' »rM FXT. PKF>- 



Indianapolis, tlie poUtltxil nnd comnicr- 1790 and 179"', and had built several vil- 
cial capital of Indiana, is -itnatc-d vn the lages alon>j the river, the nearest being 
west iV.rk of v.hite rivtr, l/'irude oD^ "i-'/, about twelve niiie-5 above tliis point. An 
longitude 8G^ 5', and about 527 feet aKn-e old white woman, the "wife of a French 
liie sea,. It L■^ i«o luilcs i"ic:'tli-"eit oi the triidc'r. hvcd tiiCrc after tho rc.-t of the tribe 
centre of the State, and one rr.ile 5*j'ith-w<.sr had left. She had been tak^n pris'.>ner, 
of the centre ot" Marion cunnty. It oecn- when nine years old, at Martin's Station in 
pies the mid.-', of a shallow bu^in, the gn^und Kentucky, "had married an liidian and rais- 
ri.-ing gradually for miles in all diret^tions. etl a fialf breed family, and after the dear'i 
The soil is a clayey loam, sub-soil clay, onof her Indian iiusband married the French- 
thick beds of drift ,irra\-el aiid sand, resting; man. 
on Silurian clays, liiaestGnes and shales.. 

The gravel beds are great natural iilter«,. ISIS I\v treaty at St. Mary-. Ohio, Oc- 
produ'cmg thorough drainage and holdiuir tober 2, between tlie De!an-are Indians and 
ample supplies of the pure-t water. The Lewis Cass, .Johnathan .Jennings and Ben- 
whole country was once deii.sely covered j ami n Parke, Lnited Stute.- comnii.-.-ioiiers, 
with large hard wood tree^, and in many the former ceded all their lands in central 
plat-es on the city site were extensive thick- Indiana, agreeing to give pos=e.ssion in li?Jl. 
ets of prickly ash and spicewt;od. The The reported fertility and beauty of '"tlie 
tl-.ick undergrowth afi^'nled safe covert for new purchase," as it was afterward called, 
aU kinds of same, and for a number of ycars'excited the frontiersmen, ami, wiii-:Oui wait- 
after the settlement bear? and deer were ing for pos-^esslon to be given under the 
readilv found in the neu'hi'Ovhood. Hun- ire.ity, they entered it at variou- points, 
ters .seldom returned un^r,cee--fu! from the William C>;mer, an trader, iiud stt-, and, as late a^^ lS4'i, saddles of veni"- tied at a Deiiiware villaire on Wiute river, 
s<-)n sold at from 25 to 50 cents, turkeys at foiu- miles this side of Noblesville, several 
10 and 12 cents, and a buHhel of pigeons years before this date. His location drew 
for 25 cent.s. The river wa.s so fully .stocked the attention of others to that .stream, and 
wirh fish that an old settler deckred "a several per«ons from Fayette and Wa,-Tie 
stone thrown Ln it anywlicre, fr-'tn the ctiunties, visited this section just b-.-tore, and 
grave yard ford to iiie month of Fail ci-eek, after the treaty. In tiie Spring of \h\% 
would 'strike a shonl of ti=;h." The Inddans two br^jthers. named Jacob and Cyrui Whit- 
reluctantly vielded the country on account zel, having got permission of tiie <-ld pela- 
of the abundance of 11 di and game, and ware chief, blazed a tra« from the White- 
manv of them lingered in the vici.nity lone water river to the bluiis of White river, 
after the treaty. Though dr3y had ni* per- They remained and raided a crop there 
manent vilkir'e hr re, tlitelr hunting and dsh- during the Summer, and moved iheir fami- 
ing camps were numerous on and nona of des out in October. (.Jacob Whitzel died 
the citT .site, and a traveller who pas,se<l up there July 2, 1827.) Lewis Whiizel, liie 
tiie river .-evevalvears iK-foir; the settlemenr, noted Indian scout, celebrated in iDorder 
says the banks v/'ere then dotted with 'vi^-annals, was a brother of these men and 
warns and the river often parttnl by their visited them there shortly after, >'bile on 
ctmoes. The scene was verv striking at ins way to Loui.siana. Late in the !• all of 
niiiht when the savages were tire hunting or 131S, Dr. Dougla,s had a.-;cended the river 
fi-diins-. The Shawnees atid Delaware; h:id from the lower settlements, awhile 
vioved to this section sometime beiween at the biufis ; and James Faxion descende.! 


it from t];e hea.'wator*, reaching this pdint 1^*20 rogue sconis to have be.-ii the onlv 
in January, IS-O. These explorinij trips inhaMtant from }.Iarch, ISIU. to Fehn-:'. 
were attcndeil with .-nine risk, for the In- -~, 1S-J(>. wiu-n and James McCor- 
dians \Tere in full po->e--.iion and nut well nH'"k arrived and hnilt tlieir oahin^ un i!ie 
disponed toward rlie intruder,-. Ti\^r bank, juot below the inouth ot' Fall 

1S19 Aeourding- to va.j-: authnritie-;, the ereek and near the present bridice. John 
honor due to the tir^t settler behmLrs t<i Maxwell and Jdhn Cowan followtr.t >ii.,rtiv 
George Pogue, a blacksmith from White- after, building cabins ettrlv in M;ircii iii 
water, who reached thi^ point from that !^be north-west corner of the donaiiun on 
section March 2, ISin. After reaching the Fall creek, near the present Crawf. .rd-vill,,; 
river he turneii back and built his cabin road bridge. In March, April and ^[av 
on the high ground east of the creek which other families arrived following the trace 
now boars hi.s name, close to a larsre sprincr, 'eft by Cowan and Maxwell, and Ijv the 
and near tlie present eastern end of Michi- nrst of .June there were perhaps tifteon 
gan street. The ruins of this cabin were families on the present donation. Among 

ithem were those of Henry and .Samuel 
jDavis, Corbaley, Barnhill, ' VanDlaricum, • 
Harding and AVil.-on. The first cubiu <.n 
|the old _to^\•n plat was built in May, by 
j Isaac Wilson, near the north-west corner of 
■the state house sipiare. Other emiirrduts 
jarrived during the Summer and Fall, and 
jthe settlemen: grcvr slc.vly Ibr a year after- 
iward. The government surveys in this sec- 
jtion were made in 1?1U and 1820. 

I The congressional act of April 10. 1S1(3, , 

g^'^i ' r --r~~T r 1, i authorizing a state government for Indiana, 

S^^r' ~* ' jhad donated (with the privilege of selec- 

^^^' >-^ ^ __ ^_ jtion,) four sections of unsold lands for a 

'"^^'''^^'•^=^^~^-^^5;^^=«riz^=5C?--^ ; permanent capital. The assembly, on Janu- 

,,- n • T> ■ , a T- .r-u T, , !-'ry II7 l-'^-'X appointed George Himt, John 

C..eorsePosuesn.s.l<^K.^.th^u-.tCabmB^:lt,cv,nner, John Giililund, Stephen Ludlow, 

-Joseph Bartholomew, John Tiptop,, Jers-e B. 
visible for many years afterward, Pocjie L»urham, Frederick Rapp, ^\'iJiia:^ Prince, 
was killed by Indians about daybreak onv ■-nd Th(]ma3 Fmersi/u, cnmnii~;ioners to 
morning in April, 1S"21, His horses had make the selection, directin-r them to meet 
been disturbed during the night, lie de- J-t Conner's liouse, on White river, early in 
clared the Indians were stealing them, and cue Spring. A part of them only served, 
taking his ritle set out in pursuit. Wheri Iscending the valley on horseback and 
last seen he was near tlieir camp, gunshots iiaklng examinations, they met as directed 
were heard, and as his horses and clothes r Conner's, where, after very serious dis- ' 
were atterward seen in their possession little vUtes between them a-s to sites at the blutis, 
doubt remained as to his fate. His death •-: the mouth of F;dl creek and at Conner's, . 
greatly excited the settlers, hut their nu- :iie present location was chosen by three ^ 
merical weakness prevented any etli>rt to votes asraiust two for the bluHs. On the 
avenge it. The i>reek on which he settled, Tih of Jimc, 1520, they reported the choice 
which then pursued a very winding -vf sections one and twelve, east fractional ' 
thrKUtrh the south-east part of the plat, -foction two and eleven, and enough of we.~t 
alarming the inhabitants by its floods, re-, fractional section three, in township tifteen, 
ceived his n'lmo and remains a lasting range three eaf-t, to make the four sections 
memorial of the tirst inhaljitant of the pre- -/ranted. The location gave the place in- 
sent citv. srant reputation, and assisted hi bringing 

Pogue's claim as the first settler has been -misrants to it during the Summer and', 
contested, and in a publi-hed article by L>r. ?'all of 1820, and Spring of 1821. Among ■ 
S. G, Mitclieil, in the Indianapolis Guzette. uinse who then came were }.Iorris Morris, : 
in the Summer of 1822, it is stated that^Jr. S. G. Miulieil, John and James Given, 
the McCormic'ics were t!ie tirst emigrants LnMatthias Xowhuul, .James M. Ray, N;'.tlian- 
Februarv', 1820, and thfit Pogue arrived -d Cox, Thomas Anderson, John Hawkins, 
with others in March, 1S20, a month later. iL>r. Livin.gsloji Ituniap, David Wik4, Dan- 
It is singular that this statement, if ill- '.fl Yandes, Alexander Ralsti;n, Dr. Isaac 
founded, should not have been contradictfd s.oe, Douglas Maguire and others, and the 
publicly in the 'paper at the time, but the ibins cuistered closely along the river 
weight of tradition is agiinst it and coucurs, :ank, on and near v.hich almost the wliole 
in fixing Po^rue's arrival in 1819. l-ettleraent was h)cated. Most of tlse aljove 


laiueJ parties cp.iao In the Spring of 1?21. 

In the north-west part of the donation, 
and west of the ]ire-ent lilind r-yluni, a 
tract of ov.e Imndred and liuy nr t^vo hun- 
<lred acre> wa.« found wiifire the heavy tim- 
ber had hei-n killed years before by Incusrs 
or v,"orm?!. The undcr^^rowth wa.s cut oti', 
brush fences enclosed portions of the " cat- 
erpillir deadning," and dnriti:^ this and fol- 
lowing years it was oukivated in corn and 
vegetables by t!ie settlers as a common field. 
Its existence was a great benefit, for it saved 
much heavy labor in cutting off dense tim- 
ber and \vas immediately a\ailable for culti- 
vation. It yielded abundantly, g:;me was 
readily procured, and though con^idenibie 
sickness occurred during the Summer and 
Full, the people got ah^np: with comparative 
comfort during the Fall and Winter of 

iN^l Tiie legislature confirmed the 
choice of site Januar'- •;, 1S21 named the 
town Indianapolis, and ajipointed Christo- 
pher Harrison, James Jones and Sanuiel P. 
Booker, C(.)mmissioners to lay it ofl^ direct- 
ing them to meet on the site first M.onday 
in April, appoint surveyors and clerk, make 
a survey, prepare two maps, -and advertise 
and sell the alternate lots as soon as possi- 
ble, the nior.ey received from the sales to 
be set apart as a public building fund. At 
the appointed time Judge Plarrison was the 
only commissioner here and the only one 
who acted. Eli as P. Fordham and Alexan- 
der Kalston had been selected as the sur- 
veyors, and Benjamin I. Blythe clerk. Mr. 
Blyth Ijecame a resident of the town and 
was subseip\entjy the agent. Of Fordham 
little is known. Eaiston was an old bache- 
lor, a talented Scotchman, a.nd when young 
had assisted in surveying Wa.-hington dty. 
He was aftorwaril coimected with Burr'a ex- 
pedition and on its failure remained in the 
West. We are inde!:>ted to him for tlie reg- 
ular plan, large s<iuares, wide streets and 
dia2:onal avenues of the old plat. He after- 
ward .settled here, highly esteemed for his 
virtues anil mental powers, and dying Jan- 
uary 5, 1S27, lies somewhere in the old 
cemeterv' in an unmarkeil crrave. 

The .-urvcying pa-ty having been organ- 
ized in April, the plan was determined on, 
the plat made and tlie survey begun. The 
lines and corners of the foui- sections were 
traced out, with a fraction on the west bank 
to comijlete the 2,560 acres granted. A 
town plat one mile s(piare was marke<l out 
near tiie middle of the donation. A circle 
lot of nearly four acres in extent surrounrkd 
by a street eighty leet wide occupied the 
centre, and from the outside corners of the 
blocks next to it avt-nues ninety teet wide 
Were dra^vn to tlie corners of the plat. Tb.e 
other streets ran north and south and east 

and west, and wei-e ninety feet wide except 
Washington which was one hundred and 
twenty. Tlicre v.t-re eighty-nine .s^juares of 
four acres in extent, each four hundred and 
twenty feet front, dividerl by two alKvs 
fifteen and thirty feet wide crossing at ridit 
angles. There were also six fractional 
squares and three large irregular tracts in 
the valley of Pogne's run. The present 
North, Soutli, East and West streets, were 
not included in the ori<,'inal design, the plat 
abutting directly against the undivided do- 
nation lands !nit were mlded afterward by 
Jud^ce Harrison at the su;.'gestion of James 
Blake, who said that fifty years afterward 
they T.-ould afibrd a line four mile drive 
around the town and a half mile from its 
centre. The donation outside the plat was 
not laid otl" or divided, for no one supposed 
the town would ever extend beyond the 
plat, and no provision was made for it. It 
v.'as «ltcrv>;iid di.ided by tlie agent, under 
direction of the assembly, into large out- 
blocks, witli few and narrow roads or streets, 
and sold for farms. The " sub-divisions " 
are properly in the squares of the old plat 
and in these out-blocks, and the '' addi- 
tions" are properly outside of the donation 
limits. Unfortunately no rule has ever been 
adopted by the legislature or city council 
requiring sub-divisions, and especially ad- 
ditions, to conform generally to the city 
plat. Each owner has l)etn left free lo 
regulate the size and shape of blocks and 
lots, and tlie width and direction of streets 
and alleys, to suit his owtt interest or con- 
venience, and as a natural conserpaence the 
aewest jxirti'^ns of our city are the most 
irreffvdar and unsightly portions shown w 
its map. A rule on this subject .should be at 
once adopted for the future, and larire sums 
will have to be expended some day on 
account of the failure to adopt it in the 
past. The city Ion;,' since covered the do- 
nation, and its suburbs extend in most direc- 
tions irum a half mile to a mile beyond, but 
the nnmicipal government and revenu<?s 
are still restricted to the original donation 
limits. The old town plat was not located 
in the center of the donation. The joint 
corner of the four sections is in the alley 
ten feet west anrl five feet south of the south- 
east corner of the Palmer House li)t. The 
surveyors foimd that if tlie centre (>( the 
plat was fixed there too much of the plat 
would be thrown in Pogue's run valley, 
then a most unpromising li>cality. In 
searching for a better point the natural 
elevation in the present circle was found 
and at once chosen. It was then coven d 
with a fine <rrove of tall, stnusht suarar trees, 
wliich should have been preserved. The 
surveyors were much embarras.-ed in their 
work bv the bavous which tlien cro-s.-ed the 


donation in ;\ !;'irth-ea<t and south-west di- in Scptem^x?r, is^-J. Tl.e pw.ple were di<- 
rection, and by the thicicets through satisfied with hiiu and with Ins suoix-s.-i;- 
which they hiid to cut their way. In some James Milroy, nvho held the ofliCi- a )'.■■*' 
places these bayou channels -ire not yet en- months and then resigned, iiecause thev did 
tirely obKterated, and portiuns of the old not become permanent residents of the tnv/n. 
thickets were lound in protected spots till Bethuel F. -Morris was appointed I)ecember 
1^^^- ;24, 182-2; Benjamin I. Ulvthe Febu^.^r^• 1, 

1 he surveys and maps Ix'ing completed, IS'-'o; Ebenezor .Sliarpe ' April 8. is-JS 
the lot sale was duly advertised and held l>y dyiu!? September, 18;;8; John G. ''r,n.v.-n 
Gen. John Carr, ithe hrst State agent, M'ho then hekl it a few m.mths, hein? succcC'lvd 
had reached here shortly before,) nn the .January or Februarv, ISoO. bv Thomas II. 
loth of October, at a e;'bin on Wa^luncr;ou Sharpe"; John Cook," state librarian, lield it 
street just west of the pre^.-iit canal. The a short time in IS43-4, and the office was 
sale lasted nearly a week. The first day ; then transferred to tiie auditor of State .Jar.- 
wa.s cold and raw with a high wind, and a'uar}-, 1844, and the business closed up by 
man at the s:ile came near being killed by lum. 

a falling limb. Tliere were many buyers' Until 1S21 the centre and north oart o: 
present botli citizen.-; and strangers, and the State was included in Delaware V-ounlv 
Carter's, Hawkins' and Rowland's taverns, yet unorganii:eel but attached, for judicial 
as well as many of the private house-;, were purposes, to Fayette and "Wayu'.; counties, 
thronged with guests; comp>etitiou was briskwhose courts had concurrent' jurisdiction^ 
and high prices were obtained. The main The people in the new purcb.-ise we-.e sued 
settlement w.-'.s near the river, but lots to and indicted in the court.«"at Connersville and 
the cast and north sold best, for the unusual other points on Whitewater, and the co>ts 
sickness during the Summer and Fall (here-'often exceetled the debt, damages or fines. 
after mentioned) had convinced the people Confiicts of jurisdictiDU also occurred, ill- 
they must leave the river neighborhood, feeling was aroused, and tlie people here 
Each four acre block was divided into 1'2 finally rebelk-d against it. To prevent 
lots tJ7A by 195 feet, and the alternate lots trouble the assembly, Jamuiry 9, 1S21, au- 
were rocrved begiiuung with number one. thorized the appointment of two justices of 
Three bundled and l(jurteen lots in theceii-'the peace for the new settlements, aptpeals 
tral and northern parts of the old plat were lying from them to the Bartiiolomew circuit 
sold for S^>o,5l^^^,l;o, one-fifth or S7,irj,25!conrt. In April Governor Jennim.'H ap- 
down and the balance in four equal annual' pointed John ^[axwell, of this place, a ju.-- 
installments. The lot west of court square tice of the peace, the tirtt judicial otiicer 
on Washington street sold highest, SofJO, in the new purchase, but he resicr.ed in 
and the siiuilar lot west of state square-.June, and the citizens elected .James McII- 
brought S5U0. Intervening lots on the|vain, who was duly commissioned in 0'-:o- 
street sold from Sl0<) to 8300. One hun-!ber. His twelve loot cabin stood on tlie 
drcd and sixty-riinc lots sold at this timeuiorth-we^t corner of Pennsylvania arai 
were afterward forteited e>r exchanged by Michigan streets, where he held court, pipe 
the buyers for othen-;. The reserved and in mouth, in his cabin door, the jury ranged 
forfeited lots were repeatedly ofiered at sub-iin front on a fallen tree, and the first con- 
se<|uent periods, both at public and private stable, Corbaley, standing guard ever t^'e 
sale; but money was scarce, the town im-,cidprits, who nevertheless often escaj.ed 
I)roved slowly, prices declined and fi>r sev-throuu'h the woods. Calvin Fletcher was 
eral years iew sales were made. Nineteen then the only lawyer, and the last judge in 
hundred acres of lots and lands remained all the knotty cases, the justie-e privately 
uns<:)!d as late as ISol, but were mostly dis- Staking his advice as to their dispo-a!. 
pfjsed of in that year by order of the le^ds- There was no jail nearer than Conne:-sville. 
lature, the minimum price being ten dollars^and it being expensive and troublesome to 
{»er acre. The amount received up to 1842, send culprits there in charge of the co;;sta- 
when the sales were ended and closed, wasble and posse, the plan was aito[.teil of 
about S125,0<iiJ, and from this fund the' fri^-htening them away. A case of thi- kind 
state house, court house, Governor's circle, 'occurred on Christmas, 1S21. Four Ken- 
clerk's office and trea-urer's house and otfice tucky boatmen, wlio had '" wliipped their 
were built. General Carr received the svei'jht in wild cats" on the Kanawha and 
money and made the deeds at the first .sale, elsewhere, came from thebiuus to "Naplis" 
HLs c'abin stood on Dela-vare street where to have a Christmxs spree." it began early, 
Hereth's block now stands, and the electiott^for the citizens were roused before dawn by 
were held and the courts began there till a great uproar at Daniel Larklns clapb.oard 
the court house was built. He was api>oint- grocery, wfuch contained a barrel of whi-ky. 
ed in 1S21 at a salary of S'>i0. but it was The fclur licroes were di-covered bu-^ily em- 
re<iuccd next vear to .;r;J00, and he resigned ployed in tearing it down. A request to 


dtsi.-.i produced a volley of oatlis, a dL-ijilaythe coiinrry and the want of roads tlio .^-t- 
of big knives, and an advance on the clti- tlement was almost entirely isolati-d. Tlie 
zuis, most of whom immediately found pres-: national road had been desio-ned to ma tif- 
siiig busine^ elsewhere. _ They were inter- teen miles south of this point before the site 
ested, however, in tlie existence of the gro- was chosen, but tiie assembly, Jjnuarv S. 
eery, and furthermore sucli defiance of lawlS'il, memoriali/.ed conirress, stating the lo- 
and order could not be tolerated. A con- cation of the capital, and a.'^'kin'.; that it be 
sultatiori was held, rc'^ulcing in the determi-'made a puint on the line. This was after- 
nation to take the rioters at all hazards. 1 ward conceded, to the great jov of the peo- 
James Blake volunteered to grapple the' jde. but the road was not commenced in this 
leader, a man of great size and strength, if .State till ISSO, and was abandoned in IS'VJ 
the rest would take the three others. Thed)efore Its completion, leaving the town still 
attack wa.s made, the party captured and; in the mud. Ii is impossible, at present, 
marched under guard throui,di tlie woods to- with our railroads and goixl common roads] 
jtistlce Mcllvaine's cabin, where they were;to realize the situation of the earlv settlers 
at once tried, heavily fined and ordered to niter a Spring thaw or a loni; wei siHill, 
jail at Coiiners-viUe in deiault of payment of separated iroin civilization bv sixtv miles of 
bail. Payment was out of the que.-tion, and; mud and slu.-h, with unbridged streams, 
they could not be taken ti:i (.'onnersville atjloatincr corduroys and fatliomless mud 
that season of tlie year. Ostenttuious pre-i holes. Ilor.-e-back travel over the so called 
parations were made, however, for the trip,! roads was often a serious business, and with 
lue postie was selected for tlie journey nexta team an impossibility. 1. ntil a comp.ira- 
day, a guardwas placed over them with'tively late perio<l a "stage" oiten con.-i^ted 
S'cret instructions, and during tlie night the of the four wheels and axles, on which 
dotighty heroes tied to more congenial j balanced a crate contalnin!; one or two 
climes. |wet, muddy, half-fro-^en passengers, drag-jred 

But the Fayette and "Wayr.e county courtSj wearily into town by luur or six hordes 
still claimed jurisdiction, ai^.d the annoyance| looking like animated" mas-cs of mud. 
thorefrom continued. Doubts eyisted as to' The Summer of 1821 was distiniruished 
tl-.e le<rality of Maxwell and Mcllvain's ap-; by the general sickness rosul:in<r, it was 
pointments, and a meeting was held at j thought, irom the hea\y fall of rain. It Ls 
liawkins' log tavern, late in the Fall, to de-j'^aid that storms occurred, every dny in .June, 
vise some remedy for the dilhcuky. It was' July and August. Clouds would .suddenly 
re.-olved to demand the organization of a'triuher and send a deluL'e of water, then as 
new county, and James Blake and Dr. S.^quickly break away, wiiile the sun's rays 
G. Mitcliell were selected as lobby members, fairly scDrched the drenched herbage, gen- 
to attend at C'orydon and secure it. 'erating miasmatic vapors with no wind to 

The Summer of 1821 was noted for con-!carry them off. Sickne-^s boaan in .Tuly 
tinuous and heavy rains. Tliere is little;but did not become general till alter the lOrh 
doubt that much more water fell forty years|of August, on which day Matthias Nowland 
ago than now. Storms of wind, rain and; had a ral^ine, all the men in the settlement 
thunder, were more fret^uent and violent ;! assisting. Kemittant and intermittant fe- 
streams rose higlier and remained full vers, of a peculiar type, then betran, and in 
longer; sections now dry were then %'ery three weeks the conununity Was prustrated. 
swampy; and bayous ran bank full that are Thomas Chinn. Enocli Banks and Nancey 
now unknown. To travel even a few miles; Hendricks, were the only persons who es- 
was sometimes a desperate undertakintr. and;cajH?d. Though so general the di-ease was 
teams were often stopped for weeks !)y high I not deadly. alx)Ut twenty-five only, mostly 
water. The whole country was wooded and Ichildren who had been too much exposed, 
wet; the air was dumper, modJlying the dying out of several hundred cases. The 
"Winter cold and .Summer heat; the wind: few who could go about devoted their time 
generally came from the south and west, to the sick, and many instances of generous 
and the climate was milder and more uni-; devoted friendsliip occurred. Their mutual 
form than now. As the tim!)er and s^vampstsutferim,' at this time bound the early sett- 
disappeared the air grew dryer, f"gs were lers together in after life, and none recur to 
less frequent, winds had more sweep and this period without emotion. Newcomers 
came oilener from the north, variations of were dLsJieartened at the prospect, and some 
heat and CH:(ld increased, till at present the' left the c.-untry circulating extravagant re- 
cultivatioii of peaches, — formerly a certainjxirts about the health of the town, greatly 
crop, — lias lieen abandoned; and if the retarding its sub.-equent u'rowth. I)i.-ea.-e 
change continues with the detbre^^ting of that yetir was L'cneral in the West. It was 
the country, it is questionable whether other little greater here than elsewhere, and the 
crops be^ides peaches will not be lo-t. ; relative mortality was scarcely so great. It 

In consequence of the wet conditiorw of abated here by the end of October, the gen- 


eral health wa.s soon after eruiroly restored. Winter and Sprinc. Jolin Hawkin* 
and the people bu-ily ensrai^ed in prepara- Ijuilt a lo<j tavern earlv in the Fall, where 
tion- fur die Minter. _ the Saiflnd otHce now stands, u>irs I'oes oi:t 

The sickne.-i: having prevented proper from the ?ite and tlie street, and'soden.-e 
cultivation of the common lield, and the \vas the timber and undcrarowth that a 
throng of ptram^ers at the lot sale havin<r' person at that tavern eoiild nr^t see I-aac 
consumed all surplus food, alxoluie starva-; Lynch"s house and siioe shop where o and 
tion impended over the settlement. 2so:7'west "Wasliimrton now are, and it took 
roads or mills whatever existed, and all nearly a half mile travel to go from one 
provisions and .snoods had to be packed on point" to the other. The work of clearintr 
horses sixty mile^ through the wilderness and burning steadilv prcirressed, and bv tlie 
from 'Whitewater. Kegular expeditions close of the Sprin? of 1S22 the people re- 
were organized for procuring fnod. Flour Joiced at hein-j able to take a wa':r<>n along 
and meal were broui^ht on lion-cback from a zig zas path on and near the street for a 
G(X)dlander's mill on Whitewater, then the'considerable part of its length, 
nearest one, and corn was bought and boated. The tirst marrian-e, lir-t"' birth and first 
down in canoes and rafts from the Indian death, occurred during the Summer of 
villages np the river. Tlie arrival of sup-|lS-Jl. The tirst marriage was that of Jere- 
plies from eirher of points excited;miah John.-on to Miss Jane Keagan. He 
general joy amom; the lialf sick and half; walked to t'onnersville and back, one hun- 
starved people. They aided each other in'dred and twenty miles, for the license, and 
this new distress as in tiie former one, and: had lo wait seseral weeks for a preacher to 
many pecks of meal, poimds of flour, baom, come along and marry them. lie died at 
fish and other articles of fed, were given i his residence near the city April 5, 1857. 
more destitute neighbors. JMordecai Harding (still 'living, l was the 

Emigrants were constantly arrivinjr dur-i tirst person born on the donation, and 
ing the year ending August 1, 1S21, byi.James Morrow, the first in the ohl towu 
which time tJiere were fifty or sixty resident'plat. The first death was of Daniel 
families. The October sales attracted other.-;SliafTer, the first merchant of the place, who 
and by the end of the year tiie popnlatlonjhad come in January, I'S'il, and kept a few 
was estimated at four or five hundred. 'goods and groceries at his cabin on the hieh 
Many, however, were only waiting till theirjground south of Poc:u< 's run, near Pennsyl- 
cabins v.ere built in the country to moTe|vania street. He died in May or Jutie and 
out. Obed Foote, Calvin ITetcher, James j was btiried in Pogne's run valley, near 
Blake, Alexander W. Kusscl, Caleb .Scud-| Pennsylvania street, but was taken np and 
der, Nicholas McCarty, George .Smith, Na-ireburied in the old graveyard August 'loih. 
thaniel Bolton, Wilkes Keagan and others.jTlie first woman who died was Mrs. Max- 
arrived during the Summer and Fall of! well, wife c>f John Maxwell, dyinir July 3d, 
1S'21. The wet and sickly Summer wa^rand buried en the 4th on the higli ground 
succeeded in October by a long and btauti- near the Crawfordsville road bridge over 
ful Indian Summer. The sick recovered; Fall cretk. Eight per.-ons were buried 
health and spirits, business improved, newjthere during the Summer and Fall. Xo 
and better cabins wi-re luiilc further fromicemetery had Vieen set apart in the oriL'inal 
the river, for the settlentent lelt the river survey, b\it .Judge Plarrison, at the request 
after the sickness, though it was still maiidyjof the people, assigned tiie lot on the river 
west of the can;U, where a cluster of cabins afterward known as the old buri-ing ground, 

was dignified with the title of Wilmot's 
row, Wilmot keeping a little store there. 
During the Fall the timber on tlie streets 
wa.s ofiered to any one who would cut it. 
and as it was largely composed of .-plendid 

and on December 31, 1822, the assembly 
confirmed the grant. In the meantime 
twenty-five or thirty persons had been 
buried tliere. It was covered with heavy 
timber and undergrowth, but at a citizens' 

ash, walnut and oak trees, Lisnnind Basyej meeting March 10. 1821. it was resolved to 
accepted the grant as a chance for fortune.: clear and enclose it. Nearly fifty persons 
and labored zealously in fellincr the trees on IkhI then been laid in it. 
Washington street. ' After cutting a largej It may be interestiiiL' to give here tlie 
part of the timber down tlie question aroseinames and dates of arrival of the pioneers 

What will he do witii it?" and as there 
were ro mllLs to cut it into limiber, Basye 

in the difierent trades and professions, 
.lohn McChing, a new lic-ht minis'er, came 

was une<:iual to the answer. He had drawn i in the Spring of 1821, and prenched the 
the elephant and having <ione so abaniionedlfirst ?erm<;n here shortly after,_in the grove 
it. The street was so blocked v/iih standingjon the circle, the au'li<'nce sitting around 
and felled timber and undergrowth that it i him on the grass and logs in Indian style, 
was impossible to get throucrii it, an<l theiServiccs continued there during t!ie Sum- 
citizens burnf^i it where it lav during theimer and Fall whenever the weather per- 


mittcJ. IIo dk-J north of town Ac^ist IS, John Maxwell, justice of the peace, ^^arch, 
1S"23. Othcj- authorities ?:iy the lirst =er- 1820. Williiin W. Wick, circuit judsre. 
mon wa.* prc.u'hod during the Sumiuer, at Febniary, 1S22. Plarvey Bate.-^, «herit}', 
the state hoi;-e .--iiuai-L'. by Rev. Resin Ham- PVbruarr, 1^22. James J. Mcllvain ami 
mond. James fcott, nrvt Methodist preach- Eliakim Hardin?, associate judges, Sum- 
cr, was sent by the St. Louis contereuce.'mer of 1820. James M. Ray. county clerk, 
and reaeh.^ here October, 1.521. after much Sprin:; of 1821. Joseph C. Reed, roiuity 
diliiculty in findin^' the placv. O. P. recorder. Spring of 1821. John McCor- 
Gaines, first Presbnerlan minister, came mack, county cummi<-ioner, February 27, 
AuiTU-t, 1821. John Waters, first Ear.t!»t 1820. John T. Osbirn. county cnmmission- 
preaclier, came Octolier, ]82o. Isaac C'oe, er, Spring of 1821. Samuel Henderson, post- 
physician, May, 1820. Calvin Fletcher, master. Fall of 1821. 'William P. Murphy, 
la-vvyer. September, 1821. Daniel Shatfer, dentist, November, 1S29. Elizabeth Now- 
merchant, January, 1821, died May, 1821. .land, tirst boarding liouse, Xovember, 1820, 
James B. Hall, carpenter, Winter of IS 20. began 1823. Samuel Beck bcLran gtmsmith- 
Matthias Xowland, brick-maker and ma«nn. ing July, 18;-io, Htill at it, 186S,). Hub- 
Xovember, 182*), died November 11, lS22.'bard, PIdmunds l>c Co., hook-store, began 
Andrew Byrne, tailor, Xoveml;>er, lS20..May, 18;;;;1. David Mallory, colored barber, 
Isaac Lynch, shoemaker. Fall of 1821. :in Sprino: of 1821. 

"William Holmes, tinner, Spring of IS22.] Daniel Shatter hail opened the first store 
Michael Ingals, teamster. Fall of 1S20. in February or March, 1821, at his cabin 
Kcix.icih A. ocuddcr. Summer cf 1520, died en the high gr""."d ^ontli nf P.-.gne'^ run. 
March o, 1829, opened first drug store in'but dying in May or June, stores were 
1823. Wilkes ReaEran, butcher and auc-'shortly afterward opened by John and 
tioneer, Summer of 1821. John Shiuik, '.James Given and .Jolm T. 0=bom, near the 
hatter, October, 1821, died September 2. river bank, and by Wilmof, at "Wilmot's 
1S24:. . Amo.s Hanway. cooper, came up the row, near the present site of the oLl Carlisle 
river in a kedboat, June, 1821. Conrad, house. Luke Walpole bectan in ..ho Fall 
Brussel, baker, P'all of 1S20. ,Milo R. Da- or Winter, on the south-west corner of tlie 
vis, plasterer. Winter of 1820. George state house square, and Jacob Landis on 
Norwood, wairon maker, Spring of 1822. the south-east corner. Jeremiah Johnson 
John McCormuck, tavern keeper, February also began on the north-west corner of Mar- 
27, 1820, died August 27, 1825. Georee ket and Pennsylvania streets. The first log 
Myers, ^xt^tter. Fall of 1S21. Caleb S-^ud- school ho\ise, Joseph C. lieed teacher, was 
der, cabinet maker, October, 1821. Henry built in 1821. near a large pond just west of 
•and Sanmel I -avis, cliair makers, April or the Palmer house. P-Ieed taucrht a short 
^Lay, 1820l Isaac "Wilson, miller, ^LttcIi, time being succeeded temporarily by two or 

1820. He built the first cabin on the old three others, but no permanent school exist- 
plat, on the nortli-west corner of the suite ed till after June -0. 1822. when trustees 
house square, in }*Iarch, 1820, and the itr^^t were chosen, and Mr. and Mr=. Lawrence 
grist mill on Fall creek, north-west of Black-selected as teachers by a meeting held for 
ford's addition, in the Summer of 1821, and the purpose at the school house. Atter the 
died November 4, 1823. George Pogiie, Presbyterian church was finished and the 
fii-st settler and blacksmith, March 2, 1819, school opened there. Mr. and Mrs. Law- 
killed by Indians April, 1821. James Lin- ranee taught there for several years. The 
ton, sawyer and mill-wrifxht, S'.inm3.;-r of first frame and also the first plastered ho-.L-^ 

1821, built the first saw mUl on F.ill crc-ek. was built in the Fall of 1821,_ by James 
near the Crawfordsville road bridire', in Blake, on the lot east of Masonic hall. Ir 
September and October, 1821. Nathaniel stood till 1852, and occupied jus the 
Bolton, editor and printer, Septeml>er, 1S21. Seiidnel office from 1841 to 1844. _ During 
George Smith, printer and book-binder, the same Winter Thomas Carter built a two 
AugtJst, 1821, began book-binding M^rch, story ceiled frame tavern, (the first two 
1823. Joseph C. Reed, teacher and county story house,) eishteen by twenty feet, at 40 
Jtcorder, Spring of 1821. Sai.iuel Walton, west Washington street. It waslong kno%vn 
spinning wheel maker, October, 1826, R. as the Ro~ebush tavern from its sicm. It 
A. Mcpherson, first foundry, July, 1S:32. was afterward moved to the vioinitv of the 
Samuel S. Rooker, hou.-e and sign painter, canal, arrd atrain to a point near the sol- 
Fall of 1321. Daniel Yandes, tanner, Jan- dicrs home, where it is yet standing. James 
uary, 1821. John Ambrozene, watch and Linton built the first saw mill in .-ep'enuH^r 
clock maker, February, 1825. .James I'.x- and October, 1821, on Fall creek, the 
ton, militia colonel,' October. 1821. <Ii,.d Crawfordsville bri<ise; and about t!;c same 
April 5,1829. Samuel Morrow, licut. c-lo-jime he built the fir^t grist mill, u^r Ls:uic 
nel, Spring or Summer of l82'J. Alexan- Wilson, on Fall creek bayou north-v%-est oi 
der W. Russell, major, Spring of 1^21.; Blackford's addition. Until this mill was 



"B ^'^ 



finivhed tlio people sent sixty miles to healthier and better housed and ncqnainted 
Goodiander's lor rionr and meal, or hulled became sociable anrl nierrv. Dances, (iiiilr- 
hominy in a stump mortar. The mili= nf- inirs and weddings were "fre<-inent. 'Candi- 
terward built here had no boltinEr clotlis, dates were numerous and busilv canvar^-iniy 
and tine tiour was n<u made here tnitil the tor the county olhces. Cl.ri.-tmas brou^ml 
steam mill was built in 1&;>2. Linton also its round of Jestivities, and the V.'inter ikis- 
built the lirst two story frame dwciruiij in sed pleasantly in spite of p;i,st sickness, 
the Spring of 18-J2, at 7ti we-t Wasldm^ton threatened fai'uine and cold, which was l>oth 
street. It was burned durin,;,^ the Winter ol severe and protracteiL The snow was deep 
1S47. The hrst market hon-o was built in and large 1>l;s were hauled on the ice in 
the maple grove on the circle, in May. the river, but fuel at le;v<t was plenty, and 
IS'22, and V/ilkes K< agan lirst sold meat with lar^re chimneys, great back-loirV and 
there iu June. Tlie tirst brick house Avas; roaring fires, the inmates of the rude cabins 

Ibid defiance to the weather. 
i 1S22. The assembly, on the 3d of Jani;- 
j7^r— ^ .- -_ —1^' -^ L---r^^£= Kj '. \^^y^ ordered the unsold lots to be leased, 
.--:-.;-:'". :;;;;,5^__ ^^^^^ i [the le-^sees to clear them in four months. 
'/-i' "'■- '^5^ '"• ^:-^" ■ jTwo acres were to be sold for a hrick-vard, 

■ ^^^ :;'nd a three year lease given of the ferrv. 
I Lands in we-<t Indianapolis were lea-ett in 
I lots of five to twenty acr-^s. Improvements 
ion unsold lots could be removed in fortv 
jdays after s;ile. One hundred thousand 
I dollars were soon after ap[iropriatad to cut 
I roads through the wilderness. 
j The Indianapolis Gazette, the first jour- 
[nal in the new purch.i--e, edited printed and 
: published by Georire Santh ar.d XatltanS;! 
__ _ - ^. , [Bolton, v,-as first is.-ued January 2>'th, from 

„^ ^. , „ , ,, , ' I"- cabin south-west of the intersection of the 

(ine i-irst Brick House.) L,^„.,i „„a vr,_,.i,„ i * . t-i, az 

^ ' |Canal ana 3iaryland street, ihe otnce was 

built for John Johnson, begun in 18'22 andj moved to the present theatre corner the 

fiaished in the Fall of 1823, on the lot east next year, and a few years afterward to enst 

of PvobertV chapel and is yet -tanding. j Washington street near Glenn's block. The 

Doubts havinar arisen a.s to the validity ink' used on the first numbers was a tar 
of the survey and sales, Harrison only hav-lcomposition. The paper appeared irregu- 
ing acted, the assembly confirmed thcmdarly, the mails being so infrequent that 
2^ovember 28th, and on the 31st of Decem-'news matter conld not be obtained to fill 
ber pa.ssetl an act organizing Marion county, the column*, but several E:ail routes were 
The organization to be com})lete April 1, opened in April and May and that ditficul- 
1822. Square fiity-eight, — court S(iuare, — jty was measureably obviated. The second 
was made the permanent seat of justice.insmiber appeared February 11th, third the 
Eight thousand dollars was appropriated to^2-jth, fourth March tjth, fil'th the ISth, sixth 
build a two story brick court house, fifty: April 3d, seventh, May 4tli, after which 
feet square, to be completed in three vears.j'late it appeared weekly till discontinued in 
and used by the State, federal and county i 1831. Heavy rains fell in April tior^ding 
courts forever, and by the asseiubly for fifiyjthe country, and as the editors happened to 
years or till a State house was built. Two be absent when the flood came, they vrere 
pir cent, of the lot fund was devoted to|stopped by high water for a month, sus- 
county librar)'. The sessions of the courts spending publication tVjm April Sd to May 
were to be held at Carr's house. Johnson. i4th. B. F. Morris became editor May 3, 
Hamilton, and most of Bcwjne, ^L^dis<:>n|182i. Smhh ^^ Bolton dis-olved April 27, 
and Hancock counties, were attached tojl823, Bolton continued tlie paper ab.>ut a 
Marion for judicial purpos<-3. Marion,!year, when they rejoined and published 
Lawrence, Monroe, Morgan, Greene, Ov\en,i'togetber rill July 23, 1829, when tliey again 
Hendricks, Kush, Decatur, r-irtiiolnniev.-. 'li-solved. Eolton continued it tiil al'ter 
Shelby and .Jen'ungs counties, con>tltutedithe Indiana Democrat ^s-^?, issued, when the 
the fifth judicial circuit. AVilliam W.;lisi of sub.^ribers was transferred to that 
"Wick was elected judire and Harvey Bates'paper. 

was commissioned'sheriir by Governor Jen-} The Gazette of February 2o, 1S22, stated 
nings. Both gentlemen were from White-ithat much improvement was troing on. 
water, and arrived here in Februarv ori Forty dwellings and several w<jrk.diops had 
March, 1822. " [been built, a grist and two s;tw mills were 

During the Winter, the people beingjrunning and others being built near town. 


There wer? thirteen carpenter^;, four cabinet' 
nr.ikers, eiirht blaeksniiths, tour shoemaker:?, 
two tailors, one hatter, two tanners, one sad- 
dler, one coo|)er, four brick-layers, two mer- 
chants, three grocers, four physicians, three 
lawyers, one preaclier, one teacher, and 
seven tavern keepers. Tiiis list gives, per- 
perhaps, half ti>e adult population of the 

Harvey Bates, slieritr, by proclamation^ 
Februrry 22, directed an election un April 
1st, for two associate jiulires, a clerk, record- 
er, and three county commissioners. The 
votinsT precincts were at C'an-'s house, John 
Finch's, near (pinner's station, John Fatje's, 
StraAvtown, John Berry's, Andersontown, 
and "William McCartney's on Fall creek 
near Pendleton. Keturns were to be for- 
warded by the 3d of A{«ril. James Pacre, 
Robert Patterson, Jamc- Mcllvain, Eliakin 
Hardinir, Johti Smock and Kev. John 
^IcClung Were candidates for associate Jame- M. Kay, 3lilo E. Davis,' 
Morris Morris, Thoma.^ Anders, m and John 
'\y. Ked.'.inc' for ckrk. Alexander Kaiston.' 
James Linton, J( -epli C. Peed, Aaron 
Drake, John Givans, John Hawkins, Wil-' 
liam Vaiide^rift and William Townsend.j 
for recorder, and twelve or tifteen candi- 
dates fi^r county commissioners. Nearly 
half the population were candidates for 
some office, and all were busily c-anvassin?. 
Xominating conventions were unknown and 
each rtm on his personal merit. The 
"Whitewater and Kentucky emigrants had 
brought their local prejiKiices and candi- 
dates v.ith tliem. Janses !M. Ray repre- 
sented the first, and Morris Morris the Last 
party. The canviiAs was thorough and the 
excitement culminated at the election. — 
Whisky flowed freely. Persons usually 
sober, excited by victory or grieved at de- 
feat, joined in the spree and the whole 
community got drunk. Many Kenturkian- 
had lived here less than a year and had no 
vote, and the "Whitewater party In^-ing ably 
maauged defeated them. Tb.e Kentuckians. 
however, after'.vard outvote<l and outgener- 
alled their oppi>nents. James >[clivain 
and Elinkin Harding vrere chosen associate 
judges; James 3(1. Kay, clerk; Joseph C. 
Keeil, recorder ; and .John T. Osborn, John 
McCormack and "William McCartney, coun- 
ty commissioners. Two himdred and twen- 
ty-four votes were cast here, nearly halt 
being from residents on the donation, and 
3o(j votes were cast in the county, which 
then included most of the present adjoin- 
ing counties. James M. Kay got 217 votes, 
the highest for any candidate. The county 
bfiard orsranized and "field their f:r-t session 
April !■'), at the corner of Ohio and Meri- 
dian streets, and divided the county into 
Fall creek, AndersoUj White river, Dela- 

ware, Lawrence, Washington, Pike, War- 
ren, Centre, Wayne. Fr-.inklin, Perry and 
Decatur townships, but several of these were 
unitfd for township purj-^ises for want of 

Xo prst routes or otiice was opened here 
till March, 1S22. The mails had been 
brought, until that date, from Connersvilie 
at ditilrcnt intervals, by private hands. 
A citizens' meeting was held at Hawkins' 
tavern. January 30. to t,ike mcasuies f(jr a 
regular private mail. Aaron I>rake wa3 
chosen postmaster. He issued a circular to 
postmiL-ters stating the fact and askin? that 
letters lor this point be seiu to Connersvilie. 
He returned from tiie first trip after night- 
fall, his horn soundinir far through the 
woods, arou-ing the peor)le who turned cut 
in the bright moonlight to .greet him and 
learn the news. This erfbrt arcnsetl the 
frovernment. and in February President 
Moiiroe appointed Samuel Henderson post- 
master. He opened tne orhce Marcii itii 
or 8:h, and on the od of April publislied 
the first letter list of five letters to old resi- 
dent^. Henderson continued in otnce till 
removed by Jackson in February, P^ol, 
bein? succeeded by John Cain, who rcsiirn- 
ed in 1841. Joseph M. Moore then held it 
till l-^4o. John Cain ac:a!n held it until 1^49. 
Alexander W. Kussell succeeded in 1>49, 
dying in ofiice, and his s-jd, James N. Kus- 
sell, was appointed for the balance of his 
term. William W. Wick held it from l^-^3 
to ISoT; John M. Talbott till ISoi ; Alex- 
ander H. Conner till lS6o ; and D. G. Kose 
till the present time. The otfice was first 
kept near the canal, then at Hender-on's 
tavern, then on the north side of Washing- 
ton west of Meridian street, then in the 
present Hubbard's block on south Meriilian 
street, then in Blackford's old buildin? op- 
posite, from which it was moved in l>ul to 
the LTi'venmient building on north Pennsyl- 
vania street. 

Plans for a court house were calleil for by 
the ctimmissioners May 22. That of John 
E. Baker and James Paxton was chosen, 
and the contract given them in September. 
The hoiL-se was begun the next Summer and 
fiiiished in the Fall of 1824 at a cost cf 
S14 '.i^W. Wilkes Reagan, Obed IVjOte. and 
Lismimd Basye, were elected jusiicts May 
23. The sherin' was directed in M".y to 
oi.tain prop.<x-als for building a Jail and 
clearing the criurt h( use square, both tc- be 
completed by the first of August. James 
Blake induced the board to save two hun- 
dred of the young maples growing on the 
sfjuare, but nd spec-ifie instructions l)eing 
sriven t'ne contractor left two hundred of 
the largest trees on the tnct, and when the 
surrounding forest was cut away tjie storms 
so damaged tliem that all had to be cut 


down. The jail was a two story hewed Iciir iran St.'ptenil>er 2(>. 1822, at Carr's ciiLin, 

house, built in July and Au:^u.-t, in tlie William W. Wick prt-sidin? ju.'!:;e, James 

uorth-wi-.t corner of the square, ar.d 'A-asMcIlviiin and PZliakim Hardin- a^-:.H•iale?, 

used till lS.'>-t when it w;.:? burned by a James M. Kav, elerk, Kaivev Ikue.* S^her- 

ne(?ro prisoner, wlio was aeariy sufiociited iti". After oruanizins ihe euiirt adjoi;rned 

before being rescued. Its foundations were to C'rumbauLrh's hou<e west of tiic canal. 

visible till filk-il over in lSo2. After its, Calvin Fletcher was appointed prc>secutin? 

w- - ■ 'Zf ^r-^^=^^^^_ i attorney for ths first three terms, bcin.;; suc- 

,=s^45:-^ ' ':r^'^=^^^ |ceeded by II;;rTey Gretrir, Hiram Lrown, 

c^^V.^'-"" -- "" ^ "!^=^iu j William (^UDrk-s and otiiers. There wc-re 

,.^^: - ---:.'._:;.:' ^ ' '•'~/^^ ;thirteen ciri! caii-es on tiie docket at the 

^^' ""4 ;tirst term. The first case tried was Lhmiel 

^^ '^^^<£-~~''"i- ""' "-^ iBowman vs. Meridy Edwards, action on tiie 

-^: I B[ j.-:-i T J; I''-. Tli« erand jury. Jo~eph C Keed 

^t 'I i'i i. _" *"^ I jforeman, returned twenty-two indictments, 

''9- ' \ te^ H^ T '^! ^s ^^i^ of ^'hich were non prossed. The first 

^ \ JSi .' ■ ^_ ^^ ! criminal caiie tried was the State vs. Ji^hn 

^" .^ -.^ ._^; _.,iV- >--^-~- ' 4 I'Wyant for soiling whisky without license, 

%L "^^^^^£^;~ ." -;»^ -AwH nearly all the rest were like unto it. 

fe _: - -■ -r - ■• _4i; :The term la?ted throe days and eleven at- 

^^x,..^^.r^J^-^^^^^__;__ : :' „>-^^;,^^^£53s>- jtorueys were present, five of them being 

~^ ircsidciii.-^. Ivicharu vfuc>u, aii Irishiiuiii, waa 

i.Tlie Flr^t .ni.l.) naturalized on the fir.^t d?y. John Ila-.vk- 

destruction the old brick jail was built east ins was iicen-ed to keep tavern and -ell 
of the court house and used lili 1345, when whisky. '' Prison bounds." beyond wiiic;i 
a hewed log jail was added just north of it. no debtor under arrc-t could go, were estab- 
These were torn away on the completion of lished alone: certain streets the fir;t day. 
tlie present stone jail begun in l>o2, finish- The first tlivorco case was brouglu at the 
ed in 1S54, and since enlarged at a total May term, 1S23, Elias Stallcup vs. Ruth 
cost of cOU,OUiJ. Stallcup. The .-second session of the court 

Arrantrenients for the first Fourth of .July becan at Carr's May 5, 1823, and adjourn- 
celebration were iuade at a meeting June ed to Henderson's tavern where Glenn's 
17th, at Hawkins' tavern. The celeljration block now is. The third se-sion bcsan at 
occurred at the (■')rner of West and Wash- Carr's November 3, 1823, and adjounied to 
ington streets. The Rev. John McClung Harvey Gregg's, lot 11, stpiare 4*). The 
j)rcached from Proverbs xiv, ;i4. Judge fourth beg-an at Carr's April 12, 1624, ad- 
Wick read the declaration, prefacing it with journed to John Johnson's, lot 8, sjHiare 44; 
remarks on revolutionary events and men. the tifih began at Carr's (Jet. 11, 1?24, and 
Obed Fiwte read Washington's inaugural adjourned to the court house, then nearly 
address, with remarks on sectional i-sues finished. The first se-sions were auendcd 
and parties. John Hawkins read Washing- i)v several prominent lawyers from abroad, 
ton's farewell address, with appropriate re- who talked of locating here; but the sick- 
marks. Rev. Robert Brenton closed with ness, isolation of the place and didlnes-s, 
prayer and benediction. A bar'nccue tlien deterred them. The early local bar corn- 
succeeded. A deer killed on the north part prised a numher of talented men, ir.cluding 
of the donation the preceding evening by, William W. Wick, James Morri-on. Hiram 
Robert Harding, was roaated in a pit under Brown, Calvin Fletcher, Plulip .^w^^-etser, 
a large elm tree close by. An ample sujjper William Quarles, Harvey Greirg and oth- 
■wa.s served on long table-S under tiie trees, ers, and held a hitih rank in the State. 
Speeches were made by Dr. S. G. .Mitch. dl Many amusing anecdotes are related show- 
and Major John W. Re<.liiing, toa.-ts were ing the peculiarities of the bench and i)ar 
offered and the festivities chj^ed with a ball at that period. 

at Jacob R. Crumbaugh's house near the' A meeting held at Crumbaueh's Septera- 
£:ana!. :ber 2G, petitioned the assembly for repre- 

Wiliiani Hendricks received 315 out of sentation therein, for the improvement of 
317 votes ca-st here at the August election White river, and ir>r opening roads A 
for Governor. Harvev Bates was elected committee made and published^ a long 
sheriff and Geonre Suu'th coroner, the tir<t report on the improvement of the river, 
elected incunil-Kint^. The dr^^t militia elec- Several roads to Whi'ewater knd_ the N)Uth 
tion was held Seotember 7. James Pa.xton were located and partly opened n\ Soptein- 
was chosen colonel of the fortieth regiment, ber and October, by comnuAsioners wno 
Samuel Morrow lieutenant colonel, and Al- directed the work and expenditures ; but 
exander W. Ru~^ell maior. iyears elapsed before the roads were reallv 

The firai session of the circuit court b«-' passable, and not until a recent period. 



Tivhen gravelled or planked, have th«y been,lS35, wlicn Ma^iiire soM hi^ interest to S. 
firm in wet or thawlni: weather. 'V. B. Noel. D.'U!,da?a iS: Noel iMr. Xoel 

A westward iniLrraiion of gray squirrells editor,'! continued till February. 1S42, when 
was notieed in tlie Fall, these animals cros- Douglass became sole rroprietor, .-xnd T. J. 
sinjc the river at several places in almost Barnett editor. Mr. N'oel bought the es- 
countles.^ numben?. movements have tahlishment in March., 184;^, Barueit 
occurred several tlnuii .since, and in oiie in in? as editi^r. Kent succeeded hlni, aiid in 
1S45 they came into tlie town. The lirst, March, 1845, John D. Detrees be<'an;e edi- 
canip meeting began September 12, cxst ofitor. He also became proprietor in Febru- 
town, la.-ting tliree day-, under charce of ary. 1S46, and edited and publi-he<l it till 
Eev. James Scott, ilv fi.--t Method;?t Min- October llO, LS54, v,-!ien %h^ Journal C-. was 
ister. but no facts can now l)e given regard- formed (he bein^ a large stoekholder). by 
ing It. A meeting was held December Ist, which it v>-as published till IS'^3, John L). 
at Carter's tavern, u> get a weekly mail toDefrees and B. R. Sulgrove being editors 
and from Vernon during the session. The, for part of the time, and B. R. Sulgrove 
first tax sale occurred December 7th, the; and Barton D. Jones for the remainder, 
long delinquent list and the amounts dueiWm. R. PloUoway & Co. then purchased 
generally ranging from twenty-iive cents toithe establishment. Ilolloway becoming cluef 
one dollar, :lie higiiest being S"2, 87 i, showed! manager arni wiitor. Shortly afterward 
the existence of hard times. A petition' James G. Douglass and Alexander II. Con- 
was sent to the assembly in Decenit)er to^ncr became partners, and in ISbo .Samuel 
iiicorporaie the. town, bui Liie jirojeci was M. Dcuiilass pureiia^eu Ilulluway's share, 
strongly opposed and abandoned. No mu-;and the paper iuxs since been publisb.ed by 
r.icipal government existed till 1S32. Thel Douglass >vc Conner, with H. C. Newcomb 
year closec^ with better prosjiects than the i and W. R. IloUoway as editors. Dnrii<#its 
last. The adjacent country was being set-iexistence the Journal has been puldished 
tied, the sickness not been so general as, from .stveral ditTerent othces on "\Va.-hington 
in 1S21. People were becoming acclimated: street, being located for bjng periods oppo- 
aiid were better tixed, and Christmas was' site Vt'ashini;ton Hall, and also over the 
gveeted wdth the u-ual festivities. i present Gem billiard room, and In the 

1S2;{. The jicople had clamored for a' three-story brick just opposite. From lSo3 
year for representation in the Assembly,, to ISbO it was located in Sharif's building 
and that boiiy yielded it .January 7th. Can- on Pennsylvania street, opposite the old 
didates were numerous and busy till the Branch Bank. It was then removed to the 
August election, and their merits were duly! Journal building, erected for it by the com- 
aet forth in the paj^ers ; for, in to pany on the comer of ( ircle and Meridian 
the Qazctt<:, a second journal. The ireo/eni. ■streets, and Issued there till January, l'^b7, 
Ckn^or and Euugrant.i' Guide, was now pub- when it was transferred to the present five- 
lished. The first number appeared March story building on Market and Circle streets, 
7th, 1S23, from an otilce oppn^ite Hender- erected in IS'JG by the company. The 
eon's tavern. edite<l and printed by Harvey weekly edition of the paper has borne the 
Gresg and Douglass Maguire. The second same name ever since January 11, 1S2-J. 
number appeared March I'J, third, March, Semi-weekly editions were published lor 
2o, fourth, April 2, lifth, April 19, sixth, niany years during the sessions, the^firsr ap- 
April 23, after which it appeared regularl^. pcaring December 10, 1S2S ; the first_ Tri- 
Jluch ditiiculty was experienced in getting Weekly December 12, ]S3S._ Daily editions 
the press and material over the bad roads were at first only Lssued durlns the sessions, 
from Cincinnati, and for ten years afterward | the lirst appearing December 12, 1842, and 
all the papers frequently paWl a publica-' ending February' 15, 1843. Tiie present 
tion day on account of fa'ilure in the arrivai'daily began October 7, ISoO, and with suc- 
of thtdi- paper. The Cen.^or started with icessive changes in size, sliape and in name, 
the motto, "He is a freeman whom the, October 20, lSo4, to I«(/(a,'ia;;.j/!'i Li<u7y J'Our- 
truth makes free." Mr. Gregg was chief ;w/, has regularly appearedto the present 
editor," but retired from the paper October time. Since January, 1S')6, it has appeared 
29, 1S24, and was succeeded November IG as an eight-paire .-heet. The Jjumai^ earn- 
by John Douglass, Mr. Maguire a-ting as e^-tly su^^ported the AVhig party during its 
editor. Januarv 11, 1^25, the paper was existence, and aided the organization ot the 
enlarged to super-royal size and culled the Republican party, to which it has since de- 
Iidiana JnurnaL It was enlarged to imjie- voted its energies. It has always been the 
rial .-ize October 2'J, 1831. Mr. Maguire State organ of its party, is the loading jour- 
left the paper November 7, 182G, S. Merrill nal of the State, and holds high rank among 
taking Ids place as editor; but in the fall of western newspapers. 

1S2D and .Maguire resumed their; There was no church_ edifice except the 
pariner-hip and continued till October 17.! Methodist, no regular minister till 1S23. A 

Metliodirt camp-raeetino; was held cost of Then ensued two vears without a paf^tor. 
town in September, IS'2-, and union nieet-,»^nd in lSt30 J. H. Nixon was calied and 
ings were occa-ionally held a^- the circle '^fill remains witli the society. After th-e 
grove and in private hoasos. Tiie Presby- tlivi.-ion in the churcli on the shivervques- 
ttrians lui-t February iod and March Gth at '^on a ]>ortion of the nieinber.s left, forming 
the schoolhouse, to organize and build a.t''^ Second church in the summer of 18CS, 
church. Sub-;crij)ti(in and building com-,-^''''i i" September. 1:^'A, a furtlier division 
mittee? were appointed, and March 2'2 tnis->'ormed the Third clnirch. These in turn 
tees appointed. The church was formallv i\^'^'e colonized until at present seven or 
constituted in July. A lot was bought on '?i?''t pro-jterous bodies look to the First 
Pennsylvania street, and the buildin? raised :9-iurch as a common nnHher. It would be 
in the sunamer and finished in ISli-l, at a '"foresting to mention their history in de- 
cost for house and lot of $1200. It was'^,^il-.bu|: the limits allowed in this sketch 
used till lS42or3. then used as a carriage forbid it. Beside these, other branches of 
shop, and finally torn do.Tn in lSo9. A.^^^^ S^^^^ Presbyterian family exi.-t here, 

jand movements have lately been made to 
unite them as one ciimmon body. 

The first Sabbath School was organized 
April G, 1823, in Caleb Scudder's cai'inet 
shop, on the south side of the State House 
square. It was a union school, very suc- 
cessfid for the time, seventv scholars bcinEr 
in attendance tiie third Sunday, but was dis- 
continued in the fall. It was revived on its 
aimiversary, and continued steadily from 
that tinie, the First Presbyterian being its 
'present repre-entative. After the Presby- 
jterian church was finished the school met 
I there. The a%-erage attendance at the uiuun 
school was lorty the first year, fifty the sec- 
[ond, seventy-five the third, one hundred 
,^, ,. „ ... ,-,, , . (and six the fourth, one hundred and fiftv 

!the hith. loO volumes were m the library 
new brick ctinrch was buiit in 1S41-2, onlbought in 1327. Successive colonies formed 
Market and Circle streets, at a cost of schools for other churches, the first forming 
SS,000, and used till 18(36, when sold to the Methodist school April 24, 1S29, and 
the Journal Co. and jorn away. The pres- the third the Baptist in 1832. Want of 
ent edifice on Xew York and Pennsylvania space forbids fuller mention of this import- 
streets was built in 1SG5-0-7, at a cost of ant enterprise, but it ruay be stated here 
875,000, and occupied in December, 1867. that Dr. Isaac Coe was 'the founder and 
Kev. O. P. Gaines was the fir.--t Presbyterian most active supporter of the movement, 
minister, acting as a missionary in 1821-2, Nearly every church now has a school, and 
but David C. Proctor, a mi.-sionar\- here in a number of mission schools originated by 
1822, was first pastor of the church from associations or individuals also exist. — 
1823 to August, 1S2-4. Geor,'e Bash — jThousands of scholars and teachers are en- 
widely known afterward as a tlieologian — 'rolled, and thousands of books and papers 
was pastor from September, 1824. to June, are circulated each week from the liliraries. 
1828^ and left here .March 20, 182C. Dif- A Sabbath School Union was started shortly 
ferences had ari.-.en betwen him and the after the first school, with visiting commit- 
church on church government, and after tees to solicit the attendance of scholars and 
severing his relation with tiiem he preached keep up the interest of parents in the enter- 
for some time in the Court House. The prise. 

average attendance during his mini:^try wasi Israel Mitchell, Stephen Howard, and 
seventy-five to one hundred persons. John Martin Smith, three resident young men, 
Moreley was called }<\ny or June. 1829, re- lett March 21st for Patssian America cin the 
maining until 1S32. W'ni. A. HoUiday was Pembina seitlePient. They reached Fort 
called in the fall of 1832. James W. M> Armstrontr on the Mississippi May 4th, and 
Kennon was called February, 1830. remaia- Fever river August loth, iiaving seen no 
ing till 1840. Phineas D. Gurley was white men fur twenty-three days after leav- 
callcd November, 1840, and remained tilling the Vermillion salt work.s, and being 
the fall of 1849. The church was witliout robbed by the Indians and nearly starved 
a pastor till October, ISol, when John A. for food. "Their ultimate late was unknov.n. 
McClung was called. T. L.Cunningham The Indiana Central Medical Societv was 
was called October, 1S55, leaving in ISoS.lformed in tlie spring, with Dr, S. G. ilitch- 




ell. Prc=iilent, and Living-ton Dunlop, Sec-|Site. The clearinc: of lots alon^ "Wp.-li-i"- 
retary. It licen.-cd physicians to practice! ton and the cros* streets j)rosrc»cd diirini: 
tinder the law at that time, and continiie<J'this year, and sciittered larms on the jilot 
in existence for y^^ar?, beinz tlie t'^rerunner and donation Avere npencd, connectc.r !>v 
of the present niewical society of the city. [foot-paths windinsj tlirongh the dense thick- 

The tirsL woolen machinery in the county lets, in ^s-hich it was easy to miss the wav 
was srarted at ^Vilson's mill Jane 20, byjand get lost. 
Wm. Town-end and Earl Pierce. The Gazette in December surprised th.e 

The celebration of the 4th of July oc-icitizens by stating that Mr. and Mr-, ."^inith, 
currcd at "Wilkes Keagan's cal>in on Pogae'sdate of the New X'-rk theatre, would api>ear 
run and 3I:irket street. D. (1 Proctor was, at Carter's tavern, Wednesd.ay lULrhr, De- 
chaph'.in, Daniel B. Wick reader, Morris|eemlier ."■'.Ist, in the "Itoctor'.s V'oun-iiip. or 
Morri- orator, and Rev. lieed closed, the Indidgent Father," to be followed bv 
•nith benediction. Reagan gave the barbe-j the '"Jealous Lovers;" tickets '.M\ cents, 
cue and fed the crowd and Capt. CuiTy's|The town was excited and con-iderable op- 
ritle company, closing with toasts and! position aroused. Carter insisted that the Political feeling grew warm aSjOrchestra — one poor tiddle — should only 
the August election atiproached. Two hnn-play solemn nu.sic. A curtain was drawn 
dred and seventy votes were oa^t in the;acrfjss one end of the room for the players, 
county, James Gregory, of Shelby, beingiThe orchestra occupied a stool at one side, 
elected first senator, and James Paxton tirst!and the audience were seated at the other 
representative. The population was esti-jend of the room. Several performances 
mated at six htmdred in Septem'oer by the! were given. Such was the origin of the 
Ceiisor, and the healtli was better than hadidrama here. Mr. and Mrs. Smith returned 
been reported. The paper denounced tliejin June, lS2i, and g-ave several perfurra- 
jealousy monifested tow;.ird tiie capital bylan.:es, the first on the "21st, but the experi- 
other to\ra.s — a jealousy which lasted, mem wa- not rpi)eated for many year«. Tiie 
throuuh .subse juent years, and until the^editor of the (.cv(.-'..c in announcintr the sliow 
growtii and superiority of tr.e city renderedjin 1S24, .-aid he tiid not oppose th.e repre- 
such a feeling ludicrous. Instead vif aiding sentation of tragedies and comoai-s as many 
to build a city here of which the State could did, but he thought that com{);'.;iy would 
be proud, every town long labored to pre-inot do. In the next issue he announced 
vent its growth and build up cities ra other' that they had absconded without taking any 
States. jof his money. 

During tliis summer Thomas Carter builtj IS'it. The first military scliool here v.\ts 
a frame tavern on Wiishington street oppo-opened January lo, Ijy ^L^jor Sullinger, for 
site the court house, and opened it October; the instruction of militia otfieers an;' sol- 
6th, and on the 2Gth tlis first sermon- by aidiers. The first real estate agency was 
Baptist preacher was delivered there. This opened early iv< the same month by Wra. C. 
house was burned January 17, 1^2o, GuringMcDougal. 

the first ses.-ion of the Assembly ; ajrf be-! The Assembly had hitherto declined to 
tween the. fire and the efiorts of excitei cit-jmove to the new Capital, and the soutb.ern 
izens to save property. Carter lost nearliy alljcounties delayed action as long as po-.-ioIe, 
he had. Several persons desirous of Hivingdjut the new jiurchase mentbers having t:'.kfn 
tlie now sign on a tall post in front vi the; their seats the subject was pressed, and on cliopped it down, and were rac^-h a.^-jtlie 25th of January an act pa.ssed making 
tcHiLshed whea the fall crushed il into .rplin-j Indianapolis the permanent seat of govcrn- 
ters. .Jame< Blake and Sunuel Henu-trson'ment. directing the State ouiecs and arch- 
had al-o built a tavern during tiie suaimeri ive-. to be moved here by January Id, 1j2o, 
and fill, the Wa-hington HaH, a tw.>sroryrr.Tid the Assembly to meet in our coiu-t 
frame, where Glenn's block now L-, and on that day. Samuel r^b^rrill, St.itc 
opencl it with a ball January 12, L?24., Treasurer, was chargtMl vvdth the removal, 
Hendersctn had kept there befv-e in a log and effected it in the following Novcmher, 
hou.-e. Buike & Henderson dis.-olved indx-ing ten days in making one hr.nurii snd 
March, lS2o, and for a few months after: twentv-five miles over the rough roads tiien 
November, 18.32, Town & Pullian succeeied existing. After the A.<.-crubly, 
Henderson, but Ite resumed in March, I'oo, Messrs. Gregory and Paxton return^ 1 irnm 
and kept it till June, 1S;.;G, when the b:.utse,Corydon, and received a ^ ooinpiim'-M'.arv 
Avas removed to tlie lot east of its fciTuer supper February 21st, at \ya.-hin;;!on ilall, 
site, and the new Washington Hall buut in in ai.proval of their services, liie tox^ts 
its stead. A part of the old frame biuse/and speeches evinced great }o\- at the re- 
was standing, occupied .as a clotiiing score, moval of the government to thi.s p"mt. 
till Februarv, lS(i6, when it was torn -clown Many Indians still lingered in this cotm- 
and Gramlin-'s block afterward built ^n its trv, aiid .an event occurred March 2'2d 



wliich caused much fe:ir of a border vrar. were boinsr erected, the trees on t!ie street.-' 
T\s'o men, three wunien, two girls and two lelied and the phit gridually cleared. A 
boys of tiie .Sha^vnee tribe vrere murdered at -eries of great storms in April and Mav 
their camp, eiglit miles above Pendleton, delngod the counrrv with warer. bavou.^, 
by four -white men and two boy?. The ponds and creeks everywliere ovcriiowe':'. 
whites were Ph-idges and ids son, Sawyer and White river attained a h. ".-':;: never 
and Ids son, Hudson and Piarper. The In- equaled, unl(\-^s bv the tloods of 1S2.S and 
dians had hunted and traj.ped on Fall 1847. The boats took advanta-e of the 
Creek during the winter, obtaining so many high water, and the keel-boat " Dandv," 
furs that Harper determined to seeure them. twentv-eiErlit tons, arrived Mav 22d w'li'h 
IIq got his party drunk, told them the the new purchase staple.% .salt and wbL-kv. 
Shawnees were hnrso-thieves, and proposeil The Metjiodist <;uarterlv meetin',' be-iln 
to kill them.- They went to tlie camp. May loth in the Presbvterian church, then 
asked the three men, Lo^an, Stephen Lud-ne-aVly finished. James Scott was the tirst 
low and another to help iiunt cattle, and rjinis'ter here, sent bv the St. Louis confer- 
ai'ter going a short di-;ance tired on thera/.r-nce, and arriving " October, 1.^21. after 
killing the first two, but the third escaped.-much difficulty in tinding the tov.-n. Ser- 
Keuu-ning to camp the women and children 'vices had been' hell at private ii<-uses, and 
were killed, the children's brains knocke'i camp meetings held, tiie first SeL.:ember 
out against trees, and the bodies mutilated 12lh, 18"J2, on .Tame- Oivc-ns' farnrea^t of 
as if Indians had killed them, and the bod- :o-^vn, and the .-ecund began there May 'I'-'d 
ies throu-n in a pond where they were found of thi* vear, listing one '.veek. These meet- 
next dav, one of the women still bronthing-. ;2^rv^ ^^•ev^_. held in or near tl-iO t.jv.Ti iOc ttii 
The wretches divided the property i)etKeen ^--r^'fifteen years, not only by the M-.rhodists, 
them, and its possession betrayed them.; hut other denominat-.^^iii ; but as church ac- 
Tli^v were arrested, confe-=ed the crime, eominodations iuereised tiiey v.ere aban- 
but being assisted by friends soon after es-jdoned. au'l none have been held in the im- 
caped. All were retaken but Harper, the jnediate vicinity for nearly twenty yeais. 
leader, who traveled on foot to Ohio, eighty The Methodlst.s" ha'l no chiirch ed'irice till 
miles through the woods, in twenty-fotirl^he summer of 182"). w.hen thev nought a 
hours, and escaped. They again escaped in, ;:ot and heT^ed log house for S^JOO, on the 
Jiily, but were recaptured. Hucbon wasj-^Hith "ide of Maryland street east or Merid- 
tried at Anderson in Xovembcr before !ian, which was used till 1829, when a brick 
Judge Wick, was convicted, nnd huncr inrhurch, built in 182-^-9, at a cost i with lot) 
the winter. The rest were tried in May,!,.-.f §oO'X', was opened on Circle and Merid- 
1825. Yovmg Sawyer was convicted of I 

mandaughter, the rest of murder. Oldl ^s?;:-^'-^" -i^--^ 

Bridges and old Sawyer were hung Jnnel -'^J^ ''^ :~^^s: 

3d. Yfiung Bridges wa- brought under the! 
rope where his father had Just died, his! 
coffin l>y iiLs side, when Governor Ivayj 
mounted the platform and announced hi^j' 
pardon in a speech to the people. These! 
executions quieted the liidians and no! 
retaliatory measures were taken ; but at first] 
the .settlers in the vicinity were much) 
alarmed and fled to the Pendleton mills for'f 
protectiun, and there was a general unaasi- • 
ness here. 

A census tiiken by Sunday fchool visitor^!' 
in April -tiowed one hundred families on l-a-n .«treets. This was used till lS4f-;, when 
the donation, comprising one hundred and 'the walls becoming cracked and un=afe, it 
seventy-two voters, forty-five single women -xas torn down and Wesley Chaj-.el^ biilt on 
between fifteen and forty-five; number of its site at a cost of 810,000. _This chapel 
children not stated. There had been but has been used till the present time, but pre- 
little since November, 1S21, but;:aratioas are now on foot for its .=a!e, and 
many p'crsons then here had moved to the ti:^e erection elsewhere of a new and m.>re 
country. For a number of years the town eiqien-ive edifice. In 1842 the church was 
increased very slowdv. T'le'want of road-, 'divided into the eastern and western cluirg- 

■ - ^ ■ - - ■ • ■ '" ' '" ' \s bu!.'. 

j^ £3, 1^ 1; •' .'. - ';\ 

(F:r^t. .Metho.U.-.t Churoli.} 

and of a market for surplus products cut ofi"e~, but in 184;;-4 Eoberts Chapel was but.'- 
travel or trade, and prevented any rapid at a cost of S10,0()0, on [Market and I'''.'_"!' 
progress. Improvements, however, wcresyivania streets, by the eastern cb.arge. T 
made.. The court house, school ho>.ise, cimrch also will soon be sold tivA ji 1 
Presbytyterian church, and State ol;icts and more expensive edifice erected i^r 


o^in^'reg-ation. By tho <livi<ion of conur- niiletco ovt-r the terrible rnad-;. Tliev ar- 
CMC03 anil charges, i^trarge, Ashury and' rived on horseback, siii?!v or in srroup^, 
Trinity, with >everal Mi:^sion, German and muddy and '.vpary. at the ditferent tavenu! 
African Metho<li?t chjjrches have since been lor ?e'veml days" before the se.<sion. The 
biiiit, and the denomination is perhaps the;indux of >rran>rer?, vrilh new of 
st(onge~t in the city unle.-.- the Catholics thought and conversation, excited the quiet 
outnumber it. Further i7iention of the! villagers ; and after the session oi)ened 
church or of the many talented ministers: crowds of gi^ping natives witncs.^d the pro- 
who have been stationed here is prevented ceedin<js with unsated curiosity. For veara 
by limited sj.'ac-?. !afterward the anntial session was anxiouslv 

The 4th of July beinsr^Sunday, the cele-jawaited. The money then di^^bursed was 
bration took place at Wiikes Reagan's on an important item ; trade then revived, and 
the od. Gabriel .J. .Johnson addressed the;businjss of all kind; improved. Property 
citizens and Major J. "W. Keding the inili-i which had formerly declineil was held more 
tia. Obed Foote wis reader, and Reagan tirmly, th.^ugii no marked advance took 
furnished the barbecue, the affair ending: place in it till 1835, when it suddenly 
with the usual toasts and speeches. The reached extravairant fienrcs, onlv to fail 
August election was_ hotly contested, the back and leave the people poorer' than be- 
contest bein:: on sheriff, M(.)rris Morris and fore. 

A. W. Riis-oU being candidates. Four! On the 2od of January, 1S24, the Assem- 
hundred and thirty votes were cast, one bly ordered the agent to lay off twenty out- 
hundred and sixty more than in IS'23, Rus-jlots of four acres each on the north and 
roll having t"*.^ hundred -irir! wiyty-tiv-p nmlisontb sides of the old niat. and sell them by 
M(.)rris one hundred and forty-eight votes.; auction January 24th' lS2o. The lots had 
Xt the November election Clay received! been laid ott" durine the following summer, 
two hundred and tiiirteen, .Jajkson ninety-' and were soI>l as directed, the hirrhr-st brin?- 
nine, Adams sixteen. Clay always received:. S155, the lowest ?63, the avemcre being 
a heavy vote here afterward, and his sup-iabout 6100 lor each four-acre lilock. After 
ftorters had lield the tirst raceting and or-:this sale, the Assembly on the 12;h of Feb- 
panized July 17th, .Tames Paxton, Presi-jruarv' ordered the acrent to lay oii" and sell, 
dent, and Hin.m Erovn, Secretary. (on the 2d of May. twenty additional lots on 

A large number of emigrants passed j the north and soutii of tho;e already sold ; 
through the town during the fall on theinalso the reserved lots on Washincton street 
way to the ^Vabash country. ' land elsewhere; to have Pogue's run valley 

The Indianj.polis I^egislature was organ-jcIeareJ if the expense did not exceed SbO ; 
ized during the fall by the lawyers and | and to lease the ferry for five year'^. Mr. 
leading citizens, and sessions were held dur-|Blythe complied with these dirc-^'^irms, ex- 
ing the winter for ten or tiftcen successive 'cept clearing the valley, part of vrliich was 
years. Its rules, and tlie pending measure:-! heavily timb';red till 1S45. Two of tlie old 
and subjects for debate, were similar tfj'trees are still standing south of the Central 
those in the body it copied. Talented men!';cpot; others south of the old Bel'.efonraine 
were a,s,signed as members from the several i depot were cut down in April of this 
counties, and the mock representatire often! year.. Pie held the sale of reserved and 
had far more ability than the real one. The|other lots on the 2d of May; S06O was the 
Governor's messac'cs were often v,-itty and| highest price obtained for reserved lots on 
able documents, and sometimes published.! Washington street, and Slo4 the lowest. 
The Governor wa.s elected whenever the;Sevenleen h'ts on Washindon street, e<]uiv- 
merabers wanted a new message or inaugn-ialent to a frontaee of nearly tliree suuares, 
ral. After the General Assembly met here,'Sold for So.32S. The twenty additional out- 
its leading members joined the IndianapolLs| lots sold for .?1,4G7, averaging a little over 
organization, and the debates and proceed-jSlS per acre. 

ings in the la-„ frequently guided and con- This year was distinsru'shed for the form- 
trolled legislation in the lirst-namal body, 'ation of various societies. • Th»a Indianaro- 

1S25. The State olncers having arrivedills Bible Society was formed on the Ibth of 
with the arc'iives in ZS'-jveraber, l-?24, the April, and has continued in active oi:)enition 
State government was formally and perma- ever since. Mrs. Georce Bush w;is aniong 
nentiy located here January 10th, lS2-5.'Lhe most earnest supporters of the s<Klety, 
The A-5en:biy met in the coiirt hou..5e (still! and for many years past Mrs. Margaret 
unfinished)— the Senate in the upper, thelGlvan has be-en th-? Prt-ident of the .-ociety. 
House in the lower room — and the session-;The Marion County Bible .Society, an aux- 
contlnueil there till December, ISoo. wheniliary of the American Bible Society, was 
the State house was finished, and the Lciris-'organized Xoveraber 13th, 1S25. B. F. ^for- 
lature met there for the first time. TheirLs, President. J. M. Ray, Secretary. The 
members at that time fully earne<l their; Indianajxjiis Tract Society wa.s formed in 


the s[>rin^' of this year and continued its c-nzii prevailed here as an epidemic, attack- 
opiTatious for many years. In July and ing nearly every pers^m in tiie town. Gr> at 
August meetin,!.'^ were held at the court rains fell 'for two weeks in March and April, 
house to organize an agriculmral society, four indies of water tailing in one niLrht. 
and it was completed Sopte-uber ;;d, Calvin The streams ruse very liigii, and all m'ails 
Fletcher, Henry Bradley, Henry Eurton, wei'e sto{)ped. 

and others being leaders in it, but no perm-! A cannon having been sc-nt here an artil- 
anent enect resulted from tiie etibrt, and it'lery com[iany wils formed under Capiain 
is notable only a^ the tirst attempt in that James Elake, and thereafter at 4th of Julv 
direction. ^ iand other ceiebratitms, the artillery stjuad 

In September tlie land oiUcc was removed became an important though dan^-erous ad- 
froni Brookville to this point, and in Sep-'junct, for .-everal nicn "were aftcrv.-ard 
tember and October an unusual number of maimed for life by tiiat gun, On the 20tli 
emigranis passed throuirh the town on tiieir-of Jui-e the Indianapolis Fire Company was 
way to the Wabash and the Illinois prairies, formevl. John Hawkins, President, J. M. 

18 26. On the 13th of January the A*- Kay, Secretary. The company n.-ed buck- 
sembly directed the agent to contract withlets and laddei-s, and turned out at tlie call 
Ashael Duaning to build a two-story brick'of the church beU. It maintained its or- 
ferry house 18 x oO feet, on the river bank.! ganization (being incorporaiod January, 
It was buiit the foUov.-ing summer, and 183U,! till February, 1S;J5, when it was 
though partially burned N.^vember 27th, nicrL'-ed in the ?kIarion tire engine company. 
ISoo, was repaired, and is standing in good! The usual militan,- and civic 2>arade oc- 
repair near liie mill-raee ou Vvasiiingtoncurred on uie -tiii of July, with exercises at 
street. Sickness, and lack of trade and mo-itiie court house. Kev. George Eus'i wa.s 
ney, had prevented many lot buyers lrom| chaplain, L. Dunlap, reader, C. Fletcher, 
meeting deferred payments on their lots,! orator, and Joiin Hays furnished the din- 
and they were liable to forfeiture at any|ner. On the 12th of August public funenil 
time. The Assembly. January 2Uth, al-j services were held for Adams and Jetieri^on. 
lowed further time, and permitted buyers of' A military and civic procession marciied to 
several lots to surrender parr, and transfer' ihe court hous?. where 13. F. Morris and D. 
the cash paymenis on tli'^ lots surrendered, Maguire delivered eulogies on the illu.-lrious 
to meet deferred payments on others. Thisldead. 

act was followed by similar ones at subse-l tThere was the usual great westward emi- 
quent dates, greatly relieving embarrassed' gration in ti^e fall. The town was unusu- 
buyers. Western lots were surrendered and illy healthy, altliouuh the summer was hot 
the settlement went still further east. TheirLnd dry. Lorenzo Dow, the noted revival- i 
centre of jiopulation and. business has siiiitedlist, TL-ited the town in June and preached j 
considerably at diiierent periods. At tirst[to the people in a grove near the present 
t!ie town was on the river. The sickness in! Madison dipot, and the next evening at the 
1S21 drove it eastward, and the lot-relief* court house steps. He attracted large a iidi- 
aet carried it still further to the east. Till ;ence.s, more by eccentricities of speech and 
ISoB the town was on and near Washington idress than by elocpience. 
street, between West and New Jersey streets.' A treaty was concluded with the Indians 
It tlh'n tended westward to the canal, undcrlat Fort Wayne in the fall, by which more 
the internal improvement excitemerit. Af-j territory was ceded, and the government 
ter the abandonment of the public works it'agreed to deliver certain cattle, hogs, wag- 
moved eastward to the square on which the! ons. ic, the next spring. In Januari-, 
Palmer Hoase stands, and for a long time; 1S27, John Tipton, Indian agent, advertised 
was nearly stationary, for there was littleifor proi,»osals for the delivery of two hund- 
chanore in "the size and business of tiie place! red hogs, two hmidreil cattle, ten wagons, 
In 1S4S it moved southward, tending to ihe'and the building of eight brick houses in 
Madison dep:)t; the construction of other|the Indian country under the treaty. The 
lines arrested it and it moved north-east, till heavy rains the following spring prevented 
the war suddenly scattered business and; the delivery of the wagons and stock, and 
]>opulatlon in every direction. At present^the savages were somewhat dissatisfied 
it is probable the centre of population is not ther:-at. 

far from the eiust market house, and the cen-i IS 27. The Assembly, on the 2'3th of 
tre of basiness near the north-west corner of January, directed the agent to survey and 
Pen-Lsvlvania and Washington streets. [sell seven acres near the river fur a steam 

A census in Februarv showed seven hun-irniil site, and on the 2Sth of January, 182S, 
dred and sixtv inhabitants, two hundre<l;incorporporated the Steam Mill C'lmjrany 
and nine of them being children of school, with S2'J,U00 capital, in S50 shares. The 
age, and one hundred and .sLxtv-one of them company — the tirst one incorporate.! here — 
in the Sabbath school. In March the inliu-J organized shortly after, Nicholas MeCarty, 



James Blake and J. M. Rav being the lead"! the summer, and stood there till ISOo. 

ers in it. Subscription.-; were .«lowly ob-j 

tained dnrincr lS2'~^-oO. materials were col-| -— r ^ '""-r-''Cj^_ 

lected in ISoD-l, the huildiiii^ raised in Sep- 
tember and finished in r>i.eL-mber, 1831. 

The saw mill had Ijeen tini-^hcd before. The 
grist mill bc2:an work in January, 1832, 
and Avas the tirst in this suction that had 

ci L E 1 1'jf _ 

,':■' i-i ■« "^i 




(Clerk's Ot?ce.) 

Four thousand dollars Avere also appropri- 
ated for a two-story brick house on the 
Circle for tlie Governor, and the Circle was 
to be enclosed by a rail feiice by the tirst ul" 
May. The house contract was signe<l March 
ITtli, and it was built at a cost oi' six thous- 
and five hundred dollars durincr the sum- 
mer by Smith, Culbertson, Lisli'ip and 
Speaks. It was a solidly-bnilt, square, iv.'o- 
story, hipped-roofed brick house, v.-ith lo(jk- 
oiit^ larcrt' windows, doors and chimneys, 
two cross halls, and four larse rooms on 
each floor, and dark, damp basenient under 
the whole structure. These vaults were a 

bolting cloths or made fine flour. The 
wool-cardino: apjiaralus was put in motion 
in Jime, 1S32. The mill ran irrcijularly, 
for there was ditliculty in getting good wood 
at sev>Hity-five cents per cord ; the de- 
mand for tiour w;is not equal to the supply, 
and i~hi})ments were out of the question. 
The mill stood north-ea^t of the present 
bridge, and was the largest building in the 
place, being a heavily framed structure ofl 
three full storie.s with a high gambrel root^ 
allowing two additional stories. The boil- 
ers and engines — the first ones ever used' 
here — were to have been l)ronght up on a] 
steamboat, but were wag<.ined out from Cin-j 
cinnati with great difficulty in 1831. Thel 
mill was unjirolitable, and was alxindonedi 
and the machinery offered for sale in 1835.1 
It remained v;'cant till 1S47, when it was' 
refitted and used till 18-52 by GeisendorfEs as 
a woolen mill. It again became vacant,' 
and was fired and totally de:7froyed with 
the neighboring toll house, on the ni^ht of^ 
Novemtter 16, 1853, endangering the White 
river bridge, wliich was only saved by 
great exertions on the part of the firemen.: 
OnQ. hundred men worked two days in rais- 
ing its heavy frame, and no lii|uor was v.-^i^C\, 
a fact which excited much comment at the 
time, for serious doubts had been enter- 
tained whether so large a building could be 
raised witliout the aid of whisky. 

The Assemiily appropriated five hundred 
dollars Januan.' 2fith, to build a SM]>rvrae 
Court clerk's office, eighteen by thirty-six 
feet, on the west side of court square. It 
was built by S. and J. Patterson during 

(Governor's House.) 

wurce of terror to all small boys, for they 
fully credited the legend that they were 
tenanted by a headless ghost whose ajipctite 
for youngsters was in.'^atiable. The house 
v.-js "totally unfit for a residence and was 
never occupied as sucli. At the session of 
1829 it was proposed to add wings to the 
east and west ends and use it as a State 
house, but the proposition failed. The 
rooms were successively occupied by the 
State officers, State library-, State 13ank. 
State engineers, Supreme Judtres, old bach- 
'elors, debating societies, and Supreme Court 
clerk. At the session of 1856-7 it wa-s^ or- 
jdcred to be sold, and was disponed of by 
auction April 16th, 1857, for six hundred 
and sixtv-five dollars, and toni duv.n Ai>rll 
12-5-30. Its material was partly u-ed in tl,e 
'Macv house and the dwelling adjoininir it. 
1 The Circle has since been u.sed for political 



and otlier open air niectinus. In the fall of 
1SG7 tlie city council ordered it graded, 
planted, fenced, and surrounded with a de- 
cent sidewalk, for tlie iirst time in its his-, 
tory. I 

The Asv-enibly. Jainian.- 2()th. directed 
the a.ffcnt to otfer at public ^ale, with cer- 
tain exceptions, all reserved, furfeiic^l and 
unsold l(jts. Several alleys and squares 
were vacated. Square 22 w:is reserveil for 
a State I[o~pital and square 2o for a S:atei 
University. This square has sini-e beeni 
clain:ed by the Bloomin^on College, which i 
was tlien a '"State Seminary," so de-isjuited. 
in the act creating it, and with fimds and! 
lands specially set apart for it ; and tho'.rghi 
afterward made a cullege, no act ever rec--fr-i 
nized it as the " Univer.-ity " for which i 
square 23 was reserved as a site, nor has| 
tlie Assembly ever at any time in any man-| 
ner given it any claim (^n that square.] 
The Assemhlv. January 2'ltli. 1S32, au-| 
thorized the agent to lease stjuare 25 fori 
thirty years to the trustees of the Clarion i 
County Seminary, who miylit build on the! 
south-east or south-west corner thereof, and; 
if the square was needed fur a university l>e-l 
fore the lease expired, a half-acre where the 
seminary sKxid was to be sold or deedetl to; 
the trustees. The trustees took posses-sioni 
under the lease, and in 1S3;3— 1 built on the 

H^ -a 3 H M 

{Marion County .^eminary.) 

south-west corner and opened the school 
September 1st, 1S34, with E. Dumont as 
princiijal. "\V. .J. Hill sui ceeded Januarv, 
1835; Thom;Vi D. Gregg, May, L<36 ; \Vm. 
Sullivan, Decemlier, l.'^oG ; Wm. A. IL.lli- 
dav, Auunist, 1S37 ; James S. Kenqx^r, Oc- 
tober, 1S3S ; J. P. Saflbrd, 1843 ; Benjamin 
L. Lang, 1S44. The seminary was Ions: 
the leading school in Central Indiana, and 
under Kemper, Saiiord and Lang had a 
high reputation. Many of the present b-vi^- 
iness men of the city were wholly or par- 
tially educated in it. After the city free 

school system was adopted the building: was 
used from Sept., ISo3. t.:) 1859, ;is a higli 
school, but w:us torn down in August and 
Septemlwr, 1S60. After tlie lease to the 
seminary trustee-, tlie Assembly .iirL,:ted 
the agent, February 6th, 1837, to" lea-e t'ue 
north-west corner for twenty years to the 
Lutheran church, the lease to be given up 
if the square was needed for a Univ. r.-ity. 
The church, however, was built elsewhere. 
On the 17tli of February, 1838. the agent 
was directed to lease the north-west ci.nier 
for twenty years to the trustees of the Indi- 
anapolis Female Institute, tirst getting a re- 
lease from the Lutheran church^ but ttie in- 
stitute also was afterward built elsewhere. 
On the 2Ist of January, 1S;.",0, the Governor 
antl State othcei-s were diret-ted to sell one 
acre of the scptare at its appraised value, to 
the Indiana Asburv- University for tlie u.-e 
of its medical department, the Central Med- 
ical College. The acre was accordingly se- 
lected, and appraised at S3,56(), but the 
appraisement being thought too high, and 
ojiposition arising to the sale, it was never 
completed, and the college was discontin- 
ued. In lStJ5-6 the city took possession of 
the square, fenced, graded and planted it at 
an expen-^e of over S2,0o0, and in future it 
will probably be used as a park. Ilitlierto 
it has been used as a pasture, as a lumber 
and stone yard, and as a parade and play 
ground. In June, 1860, a large ])art of It 
was covered with a frame structure calie<l a 
"Coliseum," built by Mr. Ferine, and m- 
tended for shows and monster meetings. 
The edifice -was about three hundre-l feet 
square, consisted of a board wall twentv-tive 
feet high, with battlemented towers at tlie 
entrances and corners. The interior con- 
tained a large pit or open space at the >■ .uth 
side, with a tall tlag-stati" from which -^eats 
ranging from four feet at the front to twenty 
feet high near the walls, were arranged on 
the east, west and north sides, making an 
amphitiieatre capable of seating tifteen or 
twenty thiusand persons. Wide aisles led 
to the several tiers of seats. Ey great efibrts 
it was got ready and opened July 4th with 
a military parade, band concert, and balloon 
ascension by J. C. iJellman, closing at night 
with the tinest display of fireworks ever 
seen here. The enterprise was not pecuni- 
arily succes.-ful, but deserv'ed to be so, if 
oidy for its magnitude and boMness. Xo 
au<.litorium as large has ever been built 
elsewhere in the ^Vest, and perliai)s not in 
the comitry. After standing s<jme wc-eks it 
iv-a,s torn away. The vacant S(juare was 
sub>e<4uently used for military' parades, es- 
pecially during the Morgan raid, when the 
City Kegiment, twelve hundred strong, was 
daily and nightly mustereil there at stroke 
of bell, to go tlirougli agonizing partings 



with mrithcrs, wives and swc;itheart.«, while; reader. N. Enlton orator. J<ihn Ilavs pro- 
their twelve hundred martial bosom<!vide!i tlie dinner, which clo-ed with tiie 
throbbed, doub:le.-s, witli stron;:: desires toiUHnal toasts and speeches. The first public 
meet liie foe. Ischool examinati(.in and exhibition tonk 

Tiie Journi! in February, 1S27, said the;place at the c.iurt house October oth. Dur- 
town then ci^ntaiued a courthouse, a Pres-tinEC the fall squirrels and other animals 
byterian church with thirty members; a 1 were misratim; in great numbers, and sev- 
Baptist church with thirty-six members,jeral bears were killed close to town, 
worshi^iing in a small cabin : a Methodist Ilitlierto the lailies of the place had been 
church with ninety-three members, worship-|com]ieHed to make their own bonnets and 
ing in a small cabin, but building a newjclothes in backwoods fashion, but in Octo- 
brick ciiurch, the walls of whicli were com-iber tb.e first millinery establishment was 
pleted and enclosed during the fall. Ajoptned by Mrs. Matilda Sharpe, and there- 
Sabbath sclii.iol had also existed for five: after style began to be assumed in the ucw 
years, and now contained twenty teachei-stown. 

and one hundred and fifty scholars. There! The town improved but slowly from tliis 
were t\'.euty-five brick, sixty frame, andidate to lSo-1. Tlie settlement wa.s mainly 
eighty hewed and rough log house, in the! on Washintrton street and one or two 
town. In the fall it stated that rents wercisquares north and south, with detached 
high and houses in demand. Tiie Govern-;dwellings on other parts of tlie plat. The 
or's Oircle was being built. Six two-story j timber had been cut from the greater por- 
and ♦^v.^ nne-story bric^k huuses. with a largeition of the plat, but the outlots were still 
number of frame houses, had been built. It^in t tie woods. Large trct-^ .-toi/d in places 
c;'.!led for the introduction of steam engines; within two sq\iares of Wasliington street, 
and home manufacturing, and said nearlyjand the greater part of the ninth ward was 
SlOjOOO worth of goods and provisions had; a forest till 1846. All the territory south of 
been brought to the town and sold during; Maryland and east of Meridian streets w;\.s 
the past year. Among the articles wereiunimproved except as farms till 18-1-3, and 
seventy-six kegs tobacco, two hundred bar-jmost of it till 1855. A fine walnut grove 
rels Hour, one liundred kegs powder, four; existed in the first and second wards north 
thousand five hundred pounds spun yarn,iof 2Sorth street, and Drake's addition was a 
and two hundred and thirteen barrels oiigood hunting ground till 18-18. Squirrels, 
whisky. Seventy-one additional barrels o^irabbit-s and turkeys were killed in sections 
whisky had also been made here and sold. i now thickly peopled. No grading what- 
A Sunday school census taken November j ever had beett done, and few sidewalks ex- 
25th shijwed five hundred and twenty-nine, isted, even on Washington street. Ponds 
white, and thirty-four colored males"; fourlalonsr the bayous atJbrded skating in winter, 
hundred and seventy-nine white, and twenty! and in summer were covered by green scum 
four colored females; total, one thousand'and tenanteil by countle-s Irogs. The street.s 
and sixty-six inhabitants in the town. Twojwere ~emi-fiuid in thawing weather, but the 
hundred" and eighty-fuur barrels of whiskyjdrainage in many places was better than 
seems a large allowance for this numtwr of;>ince the engineers changed ii. The town 
people, but the water then was doubilessjwas a dull country village, with no excite- 
very impure, Ironi the vast quantity of de-jment beyond the annual sessions, when a 
caving vegetable matter. " j little animation was given to societv and to 

A tornado passed a few miles .=<.ath of 1 trade. It seemed to have attained its 
town on the 5th of April, destroyiiig thej growth. Few expected a brighter future, 
timber but injuring no person. ' jnor was there any prospect of it till the in- 

The sale of lots ordered bv the A.s=-^mblvlternal improvement scheme was origin:>.ted. 
took place Mav 7lh and 8th." One Inindredj 1828. The spring was very wet with 
and fiftv-threo"lots (twentv-fcjur of teem onheavy rains, and in May a fiood occurred 
Washiiigton street.) and thirty or forty in White river, rivaling that of 1824, and 
squares of four acres each, were oaered.hhose of 1847 and 18oS. Less damage w;i3 
One hr.ndred and sij: lots sold at SISO per;done then than since, there being fewer set- 
acre, and thirtv-eight outlots and .squares at;tlements along the bottoms. There is no 
S23 per acre." Mr. Knight, commissioner' doubt that White river then had a greater 
in charge of the National road survev, lo-! average depth of water than now, and was 
catcd the line to this point July 8tli', and better fitted for navigation. Repeated at- 
went on westward next day. The"Foiirth of tempts were made to navigate it, and boat.s 
July was ushered in with twcntv-tbur of good size used. In May, 1822, the ke-el- 
rounds bv the new artillery companv; The boat Eagle, fifteen ton.^, with salt and wliis- 
procession included citizens and the rifidkv, arrived from the Kanawlia, and tiie 
and artillery companies, and marched to, Roxer, thirty-three tons, with merchandise, 
the court house. Ebenezer Shaqie wxsTrom Zanesville ; and the Dandy, twenty- 


eight toa=, in ]\Iay, 1S24, Avith -alt and river fallinir nspiillv they returned. In 
whi.-ky, and many other boats arrived from IS^y-oO GL-ucral llanna "and others took 
the lower river, and departed loadi.-d with contracts on the National road, and resolved 
produce. Large tiatboats also were built to brin? up a boat to haul stone and timber 
and ran to the southern market, and the from the biufik for the abutment.s and 
trade was kept up till the dams on tiie river bridge.-. A medium-sized boat, the " Eob- 
interfered with its navigation. The Assem- ert llanna," was bought, and after S'.me 
bly and the people regardt:d ^Vliite river as trouble arrived here loaded and towin? a 
a very important channel for heavy freights, loaded barge, on the 11th of April, l":jl. 
Alexander KaL-ton was appointed cotnmis- She was greeted bv the entire communitv, 
sioner February 1:2th, IS'-'O. to survey and and by Captain Elythe's artillery srpiad tir- 
report the expense of removing obstructions ing a" National salute. A meeting was 
ill it from drift, snags and le^aning trees, called on the 12th, Isaac Elackiord,"presi- 
He maile the survey during tlie summer. 'dent, and James ^Morrison, secretarv,' which 
and reported that from Sample's Mills in;passed resolutions of welcome, askLti'for the 
Randolph county to Indianapolis was one improvement of the river, and extended an 
hundred and thirty miles, from here to the, invitation to the boat owners and olHcers 
folks two huri(ired and eighty-tive miles.'for a public dinner. Two excursion trips 
and from thence to the Wabash forty miles; were made up the river on the 12th with a 
total four hundred and fifteen miles ; and great crowd of pa-sengers. Diu'in^ the see- 
that for that distance the river might beond one she ran into the trees on the bank, 
made navigable for three months in the, knocking down her pilot-house and chim- 
year bye.xpendingSl,o<)0. Tliei-,' \vero two^ncy-, and ir.jr.rli.g the \uicel-huuse. The 
falls, one of eighteen inches, eight miles pa,s,sengers were terriblv frightened, and ^lid 
above Martinsville, and one of nine feet in | oft' in "great nnmbei-s." The boat was too 
one hundred yards, ten miles above the' high and large for so narrow a river wi;h 
forks. There was also a great drill at the overhanging trees, and imfit for the purpose 
Daviess and Greene county line. After this' for which she was designed. She started 
report the Assembly repeatedly memorial-|down on the loth, grounded f<;r six weeks 
ized Qingress, asking for the improvement:on a bar at Hog Island, wliere the captain's 
of the river, and considerable sums wcre''-hild was drowned, and did not get out of 
appropriated from the State treasury for, the river till the fall.. No subsequent eiibrt 
that object, the county commL-sioners along'at steam navigation was* made till ISGo, 
th'^ river governing the exnonditiue. In; when the Indianapolis and Waverly packet, 
1830-35, John Matthews and others pro- Governor Morton, built by a company at a 
posed slackwater navigation, building lev-|cost of S11,000, ran a few trips several miles 
ees, dims and locks, and using steamboats; up and down the river during the summer 
and tugboats for barges, to carry passengers, and fall, and foUowine spring. From want 
and freight from this point to the loweriof water, leakiness, defective con-truetion, 
river. Mills would be built at the damsjand distrust by the community, slie failed to 
and serve as feeders to the trade, and the: realize the hopes of her builders, and was 
stone, timber, iron ore, coal and produce of| wrecked just below the bridge in the siuii- 
the river valley, could be brought morejmer of 1S6G, after a brief but glorious ca- 
cheaply to our town than by any other'reer. 

mode. Matthews pre«.sed thi.s plan K.r| The first stage line from Indianapolis was 
years, and the Assembly in February, 18-jl,i>tarted to Madison by Mr. .Johnson, in June 
chartered the White River Navigation'or July, 1S2S. In July the Indianapolis 
Company for twenty years, but nothing v.'as; Library Society was formed, the members 
done, not even a survey, to test the praotl-' donating the books, and continual its ex- 
cability of the pdan. If at all feasible itlLstence for six or eight years. Tiie Fourth 
certainly deserves attention and a survey at of July was celebrated with more display 
least to test its practicability, lor our manu-than usual. The artillery and rifle com- 
facturers and builders M-c^uld derive advan- panies, the citizens, and the Sabbath school, 
tages from it they can never get from any which now participated for the first time, 
other work. In 1S28 or 9, Governor Noble' formed in procession and marcheil to the 
becoming convinced that steamboats of acourt house. Hiram Brown acted as presi- 
small size could be used on the river, en- dent, Hem-}- Erenton vice president. Rev. 
deavored to get some captain to bring a Geo. Eu-h was chaplain, A. Ingram reader, 
boat to this point, and ofi'ered S200 reward B. F. Morris orator. The Handelian Soei- 
to the first one who succeeded, and to se!! ety (formed in the spring,) furnidied the 
the cargo free of charge. In April, iS3", mu-ic. Al't.'r the exercises closed the Sab- 
Captain Saunders v.itli the '' Traveller ''; bath school returned to the school hou.-e, 
reached Spencer, and the "Victory" came and the military and citizens marched to 
within fifty-five miles of this point, but the Bates' grove, east of town, where a dinner 



was earon, witli tlie u>nal toat^ts and .-peech-,it promised a direct route to the East, and 
es. A military ball at Vi-jjus' tavern. oppo-Iits early completion was contidenrly expect- 
site the court house, clo'^cd the festivities. ied. It was begun in ISoO, but Irora deli- 
Nine hundred and thirteen votes were cient appropriations, and tlie fact tliat work 
cast at the Au;,'ast election, and nine hund-, was carried on siianiraneuusly across the 
red and sixty-one at the November election,! whole State, it progressed slowlv, and was 
Adams receiving live hundred and eighty- abandoned in loo'J before its completion, 
two, Jackson three hundred and seventy- The bridge here was contracted for .July 
nine. The first cavalry company, David ;26th. ISol, by Wm. 11. Wcrnweg and Wal- 
Buchanan, captain, was organized" in Aug- iter Blake, at .SIS.OOO, and linislied in the 
ust. A heavy emigration westward oc-!sprLng of 1S.>4. 

ciirred this fail, and also daring several iol-\ 1 SoO. The winter was very severe, the 
lowing years, tifty teams per day often pass-^thermometor marking five or six deg. be- 
ing through town. A similar movement 'low zero, and much snow fell. The Le;.ns- 
occurr^-d in l."^:J9-40. In December, twen-lature celebrated the Sih of January, A. F. 
tN^-eight blocks and seventy-two lots in theiMorri^on delivering an address. For eight 
old plat were yet unsold, and nearly all thc'or ten years afterward this celebration con- 
donation land outside the jdat. The winter! tinned regularly. A theological debate — the 
was colder than tL'^ual, with much snow in! first one here — on the future punisliment of 
February. the wicked, began January 21st, between 

1829. ,Thc Methodist Sabbath school, (Jonathan Kid well, Universalist, and Eev. 
the seK'ond one in the town, was organized! Edwin Hay, ^lethodist. Like all such dis- 
April 24th with eleven tcacliers and forty- icuss-ions it setiled nuLuhig and rou^^cd bad 
six scholars, and at the end of the year had feelings. 

twenty-.-even teachers and one hundred and! The Indiajia Democrat, nn administration 
forty-six scholars. Wesley Chapel school | paper, was first is.-ued by A. F. Morrison in 
is its presejit representative, but eight or, the spring. The Gazette, which had been 
nine colonies have left it since its origin, ipubli-lied since January, 1822, was discon- 
The Fourth of July hitherto had been cele-ilinaed in tlie fall, and the Detuocrat fur- 
brated by the civic ami military procession,;nished to its subscribers. The paper was 
the scliools participating for the first time published till 1841, the office being most of 
in 182S, but this year the school display; the time in a one-story brick building at 32 
was the only one. Tiie two town, witii five; West Wa.-liington street, and was owned 
country .-chools, formed on the Circle, and successively by Morrison, Morrison & Bol- 
accompanied by eight hundred adults, !ton, Bolton cN: Livingston, and John Liv- 
marched to Bates' woods, on East, between ingston. It was sold to the Chapmans July 
Ohio and Market streets, where the children; 21st, 1841, who moved the ofilce to a frame 
were seated, a hymn suns:, and bread and house where Blake's Commercial Kow now 
water distributed. Keverend Jamison'stands, and changed the name to Indinna 
Hawkins yirayed, Ebenezer Sharpe was :6t;i^;'ne/. The second number of the 6't;/!/.;i':i 
reader, James Morrison, orator, and Rev. i was issued August 4th, 1841, and ^\eekly 
Hemw Brenton clo^ed with benediction, and:afterward. In November, 1844, the ofiice 
the procession returned to town. Janiesi was moved to a brick built for it en North 
Blake acted as marshal, and continued,; Illinois street. In November, 1846, Jolm 
with but few exceptions, to act in that ca-,S. Spann became a partner. Chapman I'c 
pacity for nearly thirty years afterward. ;S[>ann dissolved ]\Iay 2(Jth. 18o0, and June 
The Sabbath school celebration continued a; lit \V. J. Brown bought the paper and 
leading feature till 18-58, but the number of moved it to 8 \Ve~t Washiutjton street, Ellis 
schools and scholars became so srreat that A: Spann retaining the old job office. In 
the general celebration was aband<med. The' August, 18o2, the office was moved to Tom- 
exercises were always of the •^ime character, jlinson's new building, and publi>hed by A. 
During the war the military displays werelH. Brown ( Wm. J. Brown, editor,) till 
the chief attraction. Since that date the; March 2d, ISo-'j, when "Walker c^ Cottara 
firemen's processions and picnics have been: became proprietors. Walker and Ilolcombe 
the chief features of the day. leditors. Spann <i Norman Ixiught it De- 

There was much sickness during the sum-icember 4th. l8o-5, and sold to Larrabee «i 
nier and fall, ami many deaths, an unusual, Coitani January 24th, 18-j6, A. F. M<jrrison 
proportion being young married people.! and W. C. Larrabee being editors. Larr.i- 
The Indiana Colonization Society, Isaac; bee, Bingham & Co. became proprietors 
Blackford, president, was organized in No-! August 2oth, 1S5G. Bingham c^ Doughty 
vember, and continued its operations for, bought it January 13th, 18-37, and n\oved 
many years afterward. In vSeptember andjihe onice to the old Capital House. On tiie 
October contracts were let on the NationaiiTth of Vpril, 18-')7, the office was nearlv de- 
road. The people Avcre much rejoiced, foristroyed by a boiler explosion, which killed 


a boy and badly injured one or two others. Among its animals was a "Kmipo," doubt- 
and the paper was sti.-pended till Ajiril 21>t.:less a relative of tlie '' Gnyascutas." The 
The otFice had just been completed and the summer w-.ts hot and drv. \vit!i con-iderahle 
engine put in motion fur the tirst lime, and sickness and many deaths. Tlie Indiana 
the explosion entailed a heavy loss. The Ilistori.'al Soeietyj Benjamin Parke, presi- 
papcr wa.s then publi,-hed by the .SV;)a/u7;dent, 15. F. Morris, secretary, was organized 
Company till July 31st, 1S61, when it was December 11th, at the comt hou-e, and con- 
moved to the old Locomotive oihce in Ilub-'tinued its existence for manv years. Tlie 
bard's block, the Locomotive discontinued first gift enterprize was started in the fall by 
and merged with the S;nfin':l, which waSjT. J. Langdon, who offered the Indianapo'- 
then published by Elder, Ilarkness c^ Bing-j lis Hotel, opp(,site the court hou^e. as the 
ham. A new three-storv" brick office was' tirst pri/.e. to be drawn December oUth. 
built for it in ISGo, on Pearl and Meridian! The winter of 18iiO-l was .steadilv and 
street.s, where it was issued till lS(i.), when: severely cold. The snow fell twelve to 
the paper was bougiit by C.W.Hall and eighteen inches deep in February, and the 
moved to the old otHce, 16 East Washingtonithermometor fell to IS and 20° below zero, 
street, where it has since been located. The by far the coldest weather since the seitie- 
name was changed to the LidinjiapoHs ijTfr- ment. 

aid, and published by Hall & Hutchinson] 183 I. M.G.Roger*?, the first portniit 
till Octolier, ISijn, when it passed into a re- 1 painter here, announced his arrival in Feb- 
ceiver's hands and was bought by Lafe'ruary for a few weeks' stay, at Henderson's 
Develin in January, 1867, and published tavern. In the same month. San.iu 1 Hcn- 
b_v uiiu iili April, i.>66, when R. J. pjrigtit derson, wiio had been postmaster sin<-e Fei)- 
became the owner and changed the name tO'ruary, 1822, was removed and John Cain 
Indi^'inapriis Seiif.inel. Joseph J. BiuEjham^appciinted. 

has been the chief editor for over ten years. I Several railways had been projected in 
The Chapmans issued the first daily pa- 1830, and the Assembly on the 2d and 3d 
per in the place, the Dni^y .Sentinel first ap-'of February chartered the Madison tS; Imii- 
pearing December 6th, 1841, and continu-ianapolis, Lav.'renceburgh & Indianapolis, 
ing during the session. The -second volumei Harrison & Indianap'dis, Lafayette li Indi- 
began December Gth, 1842. for the session, ianapolis, New Albany, Salem cV: lnd;ana[)0- 
and tlie third Iiegan December 6th, 1843. i lis, and Ohio (.<: Indianapolis railways. Sur- 
Semi-weckly editions had leen i--ued dur-!veys were made on tliem in following }'ears, 
ing the sessions bef<"ire and after these di'tes.jbeing com[)leted on the Madi-on, Lawrcice- 

The present daily becran April 28tli, L>ol, 
and ap{K-ared regularly till April 7th, 1857, 
when the boiler explosion destroyed the of- 

burgh, Jeti'ersonville and Lafayette roads in 
1835. Several were rechartered in 1S34-5, 
and some work done on them. Thev were 

fice and suspended the paper till April 21st. I revived in 18;i-5-6, and State aid i^iven 
It has since appeared regularly, under the;them, but stopped with the State work and 
names of thi* .Sentinel anci Herald. |were not built until 184'J-53. 

The Fourth of July separately cele-| The agent wa-s directed. February 9th, to 
brated by the scliools and citizen:=. Consid-i divide the donation into outlots, fix a mini- 
erable rivalry existed. Demas McFarlandmum price, and sell them publicly in May. 
and James Blake, the re-{)cctive marshals, 'The subdivision was accordingly made, and 
addressed the crowds on the street corners, nearly nineteen hundred acres in and out of 
calling for adherents. Rain being threat- the plat otiered in lots of two to fifty acres 
ened the schools went to the Methodist [at a minimtmi price of ten dollars per acre, 
church, where the usual exercises tookjbut a part only was sold, 
place. The citizens went to a grove near The Assembly on the 10th of February 
the present central engine house. Isaac; resolved to build a State house. A com- 
Blackford was president. W. W. Wick, ora-jmittee had reported in its favorat the last 
tor, and A. St. Clair reader. A dinner was session, estimating the cost at S56.00O, and 
spread and the usual toasts given. The'estimating the value of the unsold donation 
cannon was taken to fire salute-; but the ar- at SoS,000. James Blake wa^ appointed 
tillery officers being with the schools, inex-l commissioner to .superintend it and procure 
perienced men were handling the gun, and | materials, and S3,000 Avas ^appropriated 
at the third rire Andrew Smith lost his arm.! therefor. He was to offer SloO for a plan 
The accident put an end to the exercises; i' to be reported at the next session! compris- 
and threw a damper on such celcbrationsdng a Senate hall for fifty members, Repre- 
for several years afterward. 'sentatives' hall fir one hundred members, 

McCoraber (Sc Co.'s menaserie, the firstj Supreme Court and_ Library rooms, twelve 
show hero, exhibited at Henderson's tavern committee rooms, tic. The building was 
July 26-7th, and on the 2;M-4th of August! not to cc-t over .545,000. Blake bought 
another exhibited at the same place. — |sorae stone and other materials, and re- 



ceived a plan from I thiol Town and I. J. 
Davis, of 2so\v York City, ■which was adopt- 
ed by the Assembly January 2Uth, ISo'J, 
Noah Xoble, Morris Morris and Samuel 
Morrill wore appointod coramissionors Fob. 
ruary 2d, 1832, to superinlond tlie builcLiii<r 
according to the plan, to omj'loy an archi- 
tect, and use the nuiterial already bont,'ht.; 
The house was to be completed by 2S'ovem-j 
ber, 1S3S, and examined and a]iproved by 
a conmuttee of live from each Ilonse before' 
being acceptLd. They contracted February! 
19th with Ithiel Town for its erection, ati 
$58,000. It was begun in the sjiring of! 
1832, and by great exertion finished in De-: 
ceniber, 1835, in time for tlie annual session; 
beginning on the 7th. It is generally Doric; 
in style, but contains a large rotunda and- 
dome, surmounted by a cap ornament mod-! 
elod after the tomb of Lycidas. The brick! 
work was well done, but the stone used in' 
the foundation was not durable. The liouse' 
was stuccoed InoiJc iniJ out in imitaticn. of 
sandstone, and though well ilone such work' 
is not duraljle in this climate, and alwiiys' 
looks ra'igod. The building cost about! 
$60,000, and was reirarded with great {(ride 
as the finest in the ^Vest. The feeling hasi 
since diminished. The roof has several' 
times been }iartly stripped off by winds, and! 
in December, 18U7, tlie ceiling of Repre-; 
sentatives' Plall was thrown down in ai 
storm, crushing the desks and injuring the 
building. A new structure is needed, one 
in which the materials and construction will 
defy time and bad usage. The square was 
filled to a liopth of nine feet in 1834, an<l 
the trees now growing on it were planted in 
1835-6. " j 

On the 11th of April the steamlx)at Rob-' 
crt Planna arrived and was greeted as here- 
tofore stated. On the 17th of !May Sophia 
Overall, a colored woman, was lieclared by- 
all the physicians as having the small jiox,' 
the first case here. A panic ensued, and a' 
citizens' meeting was called. Dr. S. G.' 
Mitchell, Isaac Coe, L. Dunlap, J. E. Mc- 
Clure, C. !Mcl)ougal, J. L. Mother^head, 
Wm. Ticknor, and John II. Sanders, were 
appointed the tir^t board of health, and au-! 
thorized to take all necessary measures to 
prevent the spread of the disease. !N'o 
other ca.^es occurred, however, and the pan- 
ic subsided. 

The first soda foimtain in the place was 
put up July 2tl in Dmdap t'c !McDouga!'s 
drug store, and largely patronized. The 
Fourth of July was colebrated in the usual 
way by the schools and young men. !Nine 
hundred and fifty votes were cast in the 
township at the August election. .\ full- 
grown elephant and calf elephant, the first 
here, were showri'as " natural curiosities," 
at Henderson's tavern August 12th. The 

first three-story brick house in town was 
erected at 4 and G West Washin?ton street, 
during the summer, and is still standing. 
The Methodist conference held its fir.-^t ses- 
sion here October 4th, with a full attend- 
ance. _ The summer and tall were the 
healthiest since the settlement of the place. 
;The Indianapolis Lyceum or Athcneum 
jwas orsanizcd in the fall, giving lectures 
and scientific discussions, and continued its 
'existence for several years. The winter 
!was cold and snowy. 

I 18 3 2. News of the Indian outbreak 
! under Black Hawk was received June 3d, 
:and one hundred and fifty mounted volun- 
|teers from the fortieth regiment were called 
for on the 4th, by Colonel A. AV. Russell, 
and the same number from adjoining coun- 
!ties. They rendezvoused here June Uth, 
'armed with rirles, tomahawks, knives, a 
I pound (if powder each, and balls in propor- 
'tion, and were organized in three compan- 
:!•?=, imdpv ' "pfMins J. P. Drake. J. W. Red- 
ing and Henry Brenton, and marched for 
Chiciigo the same day under Colonel Rus- 
sell. The cannon was fired on the day of 
rendezvous, and by a premature exjilu^ion 
William Warren, an Iri-hman, lost both 
arms, shedding the only blood here during 
that war. After reaching Chicago the bat- 
tallion marched round the south end of the 
lake to St. Jodeph, and returned home with- 
out accident July 3d, participating in the 
celebration and dinner of the 4ih as veter- 
ans. They were paid otf by Major Tarned, 
January-, 1833. Wm. Conner, a merchant 
here, and formerly an old Indian trader and 
sCoiit, piloted tlie expedition. 

!Meetings had been held and subscriptions 
made in August and Septemi>er, 1832, to 
build a market house, C. J. Hand, Jolm 
Givans and others' being prominent in the 
movement, and after some diificulty as to 
location, it was contracted for in May, 1833, 
and finished in August, on the s^juare north 
of the court house, and regulations airreed 
on for holding the markets. Jo-iah Davis, 
Thomas !McOuatt and John ^Valton were 
the committee in charge of the work. L. 
Dunlap, J. S. Hall and D. McFarland were 
elected the first seminary trustees in Aug- 
ust. The IndianajKilis Ftmndry, the first 
in the place, was started in August west of 
the river, by R. A. !McPherson iS: Co., and 
continued several yeai-s. The cholera swept 
niany {daces in the West this year, l)eim: 
diti'usod by the troops from tlie Indian war. 
The f>eople here held meetings, oreanized a 
board of health, and adopted sanitary mea- 
sures, but no cases occurred and the (KUlic 
passeil oil". 

Until this time no municipal goveniinent 
had existed, the towa^liip and crHuity ofli- 
cers enforcing the State laws ; but at a 



L'ers. w I lose 

meetir.'j held September Sd, at the court president, and a clerk, niar-lml, lister, col 
house, it was resolved to incnrp(irute the lector, trustees and other otfi' 
town under the general law. The election duties were prescribed. Thev 
of five tnistees was held in September, and-all neoc-arv ordinances, lew taxes and'ira- 
the board or-ranized shortly after, eleetin? prove the s"treets \ind sidewalks at the ex- 
Sanuiel Henderson, pre.-ident, I. P. GriiTuh,:pense of property holders. Ta.tation was 
clerk, Samuel Jenison, marsiial and col lee- not to exceed one-half of one per cent, and 
tor. The town was divided into live wards, was limited to the old plat, though tiie' in- 
inside the old plat: all east of Alabama, corporation covered the donation. The 
1st; thence we-t to Pennsylv.niia, 2d ; board elected under this act re-enacted, with 
thence to Meridian, 3d; thence to Tennes-but few clianges, the ordinimces fornierlv in 
see, 4th ; thence west, 5th. A general "or-^ force. The oihcei-s of the old board settled 
dinance" No. 1, in thirty-seven sections.'to the tirst of April, ISoG. The treasurers' 
"e.-^tablished by the board of trustees of the report showed Sl,610 receipts for the vear • 
town of Indianapolis for their own govern-'Sl,150 of this was paid for the Mariori 
ment and for the regulation of the town," engine, live public wells, and other tire de- 
was probably adopted in Ncovember, and partment expenses, and a balance of 8124 
pul)Iished December 1st, signed by S. Hen-, was turned over to the new board, 
derson as president. At the same ume ai 

market ordinance in seventeen sections was; On the 17th of Februarv, 1S38, tlie place 
adopted anil published. Tiie general ordi-' was re-incorporated, tiie corporation cover- 
nance or charter i)rovided for tlie election, ing the donation, but taxation being still 
by the board of a clerk to keen record-; is-|1in)i^ed t-^ t];e plat, and not to erccctd 
sue warrants, &c. ; a treasurer, who was to half of one per cent on real propertv. The 
repiort annually in December; an asses.sor,'town was divided into six wards^ as follows; 
who was to make an annual assessment in' All east of Alabama, the first ; thence west 
January ; a marshal, who also acted as col-jto Pennsylvania, secojid ; thence to Merid- 
lector, and enforced onlinances, abated nui-ian, tliini ; thence to Illinois, fourth ; thence 
sauces, ttc, reporting taxes in .June to the to Mi^si-ippi, tifth ; thence west, sixth. An 
treasurer. All these otlicei-s were to ^ive, election was to be heM March 27th for a 
bond. The firing of guns, tiying kites, leav- president, by the general Vv^te, and une tni.s- 
ing open odlar doors, racing horses, driving tee for each ward, by the voters thereof, to 
over foot-paths, leaving unhitched team-j.hoid office one year, and to constitute tlie 
letting lings run at lar^re, keeping stallions'' common council," four being a rpiorura. 
on Washington street, Circ, was prohibited The president had justice's jurisdiction, 
under penalties. Wood piles were not to re- and was to sign all ordinances, keep a dock- 
main on Washington street over twelve et, Ac. The council met regidarlv once each 
hours, or shavings in any place over two month, but called meetings might be held, 
days. Shows and tippling houses were The trustees received tv/elve dollars each 
rerpiired to take out license. Offences per year. They could pass all necessary 
against the ordinances were t>.> be sued with- ordinances for the improvement and gov- 
in twenty days, in the name of tlie trustees ernment of the town, levy taxes, borrow 
before a justice. Kegular meetings were money, regulate and license shows, grocer- 
held the first Friday in each month, but ies, saloons, fire companies, cS:c. They were 
meetings could be called at any time. The to elect a clerk, marshal, collector, lister, 
markets were held for two hours after day- treasurer, supervisor, clerk of markets, and 
light, Wednesday.s and Saturdays, by a other otfieers, and prescribe their duties, 
market master, who governed the markets,, The marshal had a constable's authority, 
tested weights. Arc. Huckstering was pro-'and was to enforce all ordinances. The of- 
hibited. Tlie elections were held annuallv ficers were to give bond and receive such 
in September, and tlie town continued unuer compensation as the council allowed. Tax 
this ordinance, or charter, until April, 1S:J6. sales on the municipal assessment were au- 
The otlicers so tar a,s known with tho.-^e elect- thorized and rules prescribed therefor. — 
ed at .subsequent dates, are given in the Several sides were made under this author- 
table hereafter inserted. ity. the fi.'-st being held October 2otli, 1839, 
On the oth of February, 183(3, the As=em- at Washington Hall, but the records being 
bly incorporated the town and legalized the all destroyed by fire in ISol, but few tratea 
acts of the first trustees. The wards v,-.»re remain of them. North, South, Ea-^t and 
left as before, all east of Ahibama Itein? the West streets were declared public hi^liways 
first; thence to Pennsylvania, second; thence and ordered to be opened. Tlic new board 
to Meridian, third; thence to Tennessw,lwas elected in March under this act, and 
founh; thence west, filth. One trustee to shortly after enacted ordinances regulating 
each ward was to be elected April 4th, and ; markets, prescribing the duties of the cor- 
the board was to elect one of their number: poration ofiicers, fire department, police, 


street improvenient, licensing tippling! The first trustees made no effort to ini- 
hoiise-, groceries, shows, Ac. jprove the .street.-, and no engineer was em- 

Tliis charter, with some sub^^equent clian- ph>yed till ISoG. The hrsi street iniiirove- 
ges, contimied in force till the city charter meiit was made that year in filling a pond 
was granted in February, 1S47. The chan- near "Wesley Chapel. No street grading 
ges were as follows: On the loth of Feb- was done, and few sidewalks existed, oven 
ruary, lSo9, the Assembly orJercd the coun-:on Washington street, till 1S39— iO. James 
cil to expend the revenue collected in \Vest|Wood was employed March, 1841. to make 
Indiai.apolis in that part of the town, and' a street proiile, which was adopted in April, 
to open the alleys in t;ie dunauon. In Feb-TS42, and thereafter followed in the strt^ei- 
ruary, 1S40, the charter v.-as amended so'srrades. The corporation officers and conn- 
that councilmeu were elected for two years, cilmen from 18:12 to 1847 are given, as far 
and received twenty-f:-ur dollars annually, las known, in the following table. The de- 
householders only being eligible. In Feb- struction of tlie records by fire in 1851 left 
ruary, 1841, the office of marshal was made no trace of them, and the table has been 
elective by the people, and "West Indianap- made from the contemporary j(jU!-nals and 
oils was detached from the corporate lim-itradition : 
its ; and on January loth, 1844, all the ofli-j 
cers were made elective by the people. j 


TKAES. 1st WARD. 2il'.V.\r.D. 3d WAED. 4th WARD. JthwVRD. Gth WARD. 

18.32. John Wilkens.... H. P. Coourn.... John G. Brown S. Henderson Sam. Merrill 

18;i.'J. John Wilkens.... K. P. Colmrn.... S. Henlerson John Cain Sam. Morrill 

1834. .\lex. Morrison... L. I'unl ip Jos. Lefevre J V Elarieum N;\t. Cox.... • 

1835. Jas. M. Smith Jos. Lel'.nre Ch.ulea Can;p;«?ll.. H. Griflith N E Palmer 

183G. Goo. Lockerbie. John Fo.-ter S. Merrill H. Griffith J. L.Young 

1837 Joalui.t Soiile 

1838 C. Scudder.. K;it. Co.x 

1830. Geo. Lockerbie. Wm. Sullivan.... John E. McClare.. P. W. Seibert. G.Norwood S.S. Rocker 

1840. Mathew Little... S. Gokl.^berry... Jacob Cox P. W. Seibort. G.Norwood .\..\.. Louden 

1841. M. Little S. GoldsU-rry... Jacob Cox A. A. Louden. G.Norwood C H Boatri't 

1842. Joshua Black S. Gold-berry... Ja?. R. Nowland... P. W. Seibert. T. Riekards A. A. Louden 

1843. Jo-'hua BUck ... S. Goldsberry... Jas. R. Nowlaad... A.. A. Louden.. T. Riekards S.S. Rooker. 

1844. Wm. Montague. 8. GolJsberry... Jas. R. Nowland... A. A. Loudon.. K. Griffith. S.S. Rooker. 

1*45. V,'m. Montague. S. (.Toldsborry... Jas. R. Kowfmd... A. .\. Louden.. H. Griffith. Vim. C. V.m 


1846. Wm. Montatrue. 9. Gold-berrv... A. W. Harrison.... A. A. Louden.. C. W. Cady. Wm. C. Van 


Note. The first incorporation in September, 1832, was by vote of the people under 
the general law, the town being divided into five wards, and the councilmen chosen by 
general vote. The ' A.ssembl7 incorporateti the place in 1836, making five wards, the 
trustees to be elected by general vote. On the 17th of February, 1838, the town wa.? 
reincorporated and the trustees made counoilmen, to be chosen by the voters of the 
several wards, with a president by the general vote. The wards were increased to six 

in number. t 




> t, 

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1833. "William Ilcnry Harrison, the ^ferrill served as president till 1S40, James 
former Governor of the Territory, visited Morrison till 18-30, Ebenczer Duniont till 
the town for the first lime January 1 1th. 18oo, H. McCullou::;h till lSo9. Additional 
He wa,s received by the .\ssembly and ten- time was given to wind up the btisines-s. 
dered a public dinner at Washin^-tvn Hall, Tlie bank was first located in the Governor's 
January 17th, at which he made a Union Circle in 1834, then on Washington street 
speech. He visited the town again Januani- till 1840, when the banking house on Illi- 
13th, 1835. jnois street and Kentucky avenue being com- 

The first homicide here occurred on the plcted, it was removed to and remained 
Sth of May, Michael Van Blarlcnm drovrn-: there till li.J9, being succeeded in its occu- 
ing William McPherson by up-etting a pancy by the Bank of the State. The old 
boat in the river. The nuirder created State Bank wa.s a safe and verv lucrative 
great excitement at the time. Ho wt\.s enterprize for its stockholders, 'and made 
tried and sent to the penitentiary in Oc- gi>od and .steady dividends. All the branch- 
tobcr, 1834. The first wholesale grocery !e.s suspended specie payments under its di- 
wa.s opened in June by Beard li Patterson. Erection May 18th, 1837, during the financial 

The cholera had been prevailing else- panic and bank run of that period, and did 
where this year, and on the 18Lh of June not resume payment till June loth, 1842, 
one or two cases of supposed cholera — not, when directed to do so by act of the General 
fatal — occurred here. The churches assign-] Assembly. 

ed and kept the 26th a.s a special fast day.j The Branch of the State Bank at this 
No other cases happened then, but in July point was organized November 11th, 1834, 
it became very fatal at Saiem, luJIaiia, anJj'.vith Harvey Bate?, preside"*-, B F. >rorris, 
the trustees of the town called a meeting on cashier. These officers served for tM'o or 
the 17th at the court house. One thousand three yeai-s, and were succeeded by Calvin 
dollars were subscribed by the citizens, res-;Fletcher va president and Thos. H. .Sharpe 
olutions passed, a board of heiilth consisting cashier, who served till the chaner expired. 
of five physicians and five citizens appoint-;The State and Branch Banks began busi- 
etl, visiting committees were assigned to ne.s,s November 20th, 1S34. The Branch 
each ward, sanitary measures were adopted banking house, on Pennsylvania street and 
and medicines procured. The trustees were' Virginia avenue, wa.s built in 1839, and oc- 
also requested to open a hospital. The cupied from 1840, to 18-39, when it was sold 
Governor's Circle was accordingly becured for nearly S16,000 to the Sinking Fund, and 
for the purpose, and Dr. John E. the Fund in 1807 for S30,000 to the In- 
a.ssigned as physician. There were no cases dianapolis Insurance Company, who now 
here however, and the building wa^ not, occupy it. For many years the rule of the 
used. ibank was to loan but $2(X^ to any one per- 

The first circus, (combined with a menag- son, unless a greater sum was needed for 
eric, Brown & Bailey's.) exhibited at Hen-jstock or grain enterprizes. which were made 
derson's tavern August 13th and 14th. A'^fx^cial exceptions. 

new graveyard was laid out east of the oldj The old State Bank charter being about 
one, and lots sold in October by Isaac C-oe. to expire, the General Assembly, on the. 
The great meteor shower on "the 13th of 3d of March, lS.5-3, chartered "The Bank of 
November, from 2 A. M. to daylight, was'the State of Indiana," with seventeen 
witnessed with awe by the people, many of branches, (three additional branches being 
whom thoutrht the end of the world wa.s' afterward authorized,) and it was organiz.ed 
close at hand and they unprepared for the^ November 1st, 185-5, Hugh McCullough be- 
event. |ing elected president, and J. M. Ray cash- 

18 3 4. The State Bank of Indiana was|ier, with seventeen directors — one from each 
chartered January 2Sth, 1834, for twenty-Branch. It began business January 2d, 
five years, with a capital of 81,000,000 in til- 18-37, with a capital of Si, 836,000, and re- 
ty dollar shares, one-half of the stock to be' ported Si 32,216 profits over all expenses in 
held by the State. Its charter was amended the first six months. It continued, an ex- 
with its consent in .several particulars at tremely lucrative busines,s, rapidly extend- 
subsequent dates. Samuel Merrill was ing its capital, until after the adoption oi 
elected president bv the Ix'gislature, with the National Bank system and the taxation 
Calvin Fletcher. Set'on V/. NorrLs, R. Mor-iof free and State bank paper. In January, 
rison and T. H. Scott State director?. J. i 1865, the Assembly authorized it to reduce 
M. Ray was chosen cashier, a position hejits capital, redeem its stock, distribute .^ur- 
held till the charter expired. The bank plus fund.s, <ic., to stockholders, and close 
wafl organized February 13th, with ten up its branches and business, and at present 
branches, (ultimately increa.'-ed to sLxteen,):it is about completed, the branchea having 
and books opened for stock subscriptions fornearly ail been merged in National Banks, 
thirty days from the 7th of April. Samuel^It was located in the building of the old 


State Bank on Illinois street and Koiitucky: in the basement of Maaonic Hull. The 
avenue, wliich ^vas sold in May, IsoS, to;casluer, "SV. F. May, abst'on(,lt.d in May, 
the Franklin Li:e Insurance Company, andl^oo, takincc about SlO.OuO with him, crip- 
now occupied by that e<n-]jnration. llucdi pling the bank so badly that it collapsed 
McCulloui;!), Gcnrijje "\V. Kathiiono au'l J. 'shortly auerward. 

]M. Eay have b^cn the presidents, J. ^I.! The Central Bank, Ozias Bowen and J. 
Ray and Joseph A. Moure cashiers of thejD. Defrees, successive presidents. Sidney 
institution. I Moore and "\V. H. McDonald, succe---ive 

The Branch at this pnnnt of the Bank of cashiers, with a nominal capital of 8ou0,000, 
the State was orcranized July 2oth, ls-35, 'bc<_';in business in July, lSo-5, at Xo. 23 
with a capital of SlOO.ObO, afterward in- ^Vest Washin.^ton street. The Tradei-s' 
creased to over S"200,0'Ji}. W. H. TaibottiBank, WooUoy eV Wilson, proprictur-, bo- 
beinrr elected piresident. The stock vvasi af-jcran in 1854. at the otllce of Fllis t^ Spann 
terward sold at an advance to other parties, ion Illinois street; and the Metropolitan 
and the bank beiran bu-iness in January,| Bank, A. F. Morrisrn Oc Co., proprietors, J. 
1S57, at the norlh-west corner of "\Va-hing-|D. Diuin, president, Jerry Skoen, ca.-hier, 
ton and Illinois streets, with George Tot;-:ey,j in 1855 in Blake's Commercial Kow, but 
president, C. S. Stevenson, cashier. Steven-lneither of tb.em did much business, and 
son resigned to enter the pay department in'suspended payment sonn after getting their 
June, 1S61, and D. E. Siiyder w;i.s ca~hier!notes in circulation, and were shortly after 
till November, 1S6G, being succeeded by D.iclosed up by their owners or by tne Auditor 
M. Taylor, present cashier. Oliver Tousey'of State. The free bank system entailed 
vros plCcldcUl lu 1/ tiiie, ICuJ. fftiC-igreai lu.-:- uLi i.hc eoiuu-iL.uity Iioui tne ui-pre- 
cceding George Tnusey, Avho had re-i:rned! elation of the clrculatiun. the o'.vners rinding 
to become president of tie Indiana Nationaljit much more profital,>le to buy in at a 

Bank. The bank was removed in March, 
1860, to the corner room of Ynhn's block, 
where it remained till 18t]7, when i: was 

heavy discount than to redeem it or at- 
tempt to do a le<jiumate business. 

The State and free bank sy.-^teras have 

removed to the back room in the same, been superceded in the last live years by the 
building and its ati'airs wotuid up. j National banking system. The First Na- 

A general bank law was adopted by tlie tional Bank was ori^anized August 1st, ISbo, 
Assembly in May, 18o2. and shortly after-, with SloO.OOO capital, under _ the Nationa_l 
ward applications were tiled by diiferentllaw. W. II. Eni.disli was president,_and AV. 
parties for a number of bank.-, at this point, |R. Nofsinger, cashier. John C. New was 
some of which were a'terward orgaidzedjcho.sen cashier Jaiuiary lltli, l^oo. The 
under other names, and others were neverj bank was reorganized September •22d, 1SG4, 
completed. Among the-e api)lication- were and the capital increased to SoiJO,i.'UO. — 
the Citv Bank, nominal capital SoCO,000, in There are at }iresent sixty stockholders. 
December, 1852, A. Defrees, proprietor ; The bank was tir.-,t located just north of 
Bank of Indianapolis. J. "Woolley e-c Co., Odd Fellows Hall, then in the north room 
proprietors, capital S4(MJ,000, January^ 1S53; of the hall, and removed thence OctoW 1st, 
■State Bank of Indiana, S5iJO,000, January,! 1865, to the corner ruoni of Blackford's 
1853 ; Agricultural Bank, 5200,000, Fcbru-i block. It lias been a government dep<3sitory 
arv, 1853^; Traders' Bank, Woolley ti: Wil-jl'roni its origin, and has done a very estend- 
son pro[irietors, SG'^'O.f.KiO, ^vlay, ISoS. ed and lucrative business. It.s circulatjon 

The banks actuallv orctanized here under durhig the first quarter of 1868 was S4o0,- 
the law were the liank'of the Capitol, J.. 000, uep:.sits S7uO,000, discounts ?-'3uO,000, 
Woollev & Co., proprietors, nominal capital! surplus 875,000, profit and lo-s 8125,000; 
S400,0*ii), W. S. Pierce and J. H. Br.i-l ley 'exchange sates in 1867, 84,620,000. 
succes.sive presidents, J. Woolley, cashier. The Indianapolis National^ Bank was or- 
It began business in 1S53 in a little frame! iranized December 15th. 1864, v.iih 8500,- 
houseVhcre Blackford's block now stands, [OOO capital, Theodore P. Hanghev being 
then removed to Dunlop's building, thenjelected president, and Ingram I letcher, 
lately built on North :ileridian str^H;t, andicashier. He re-signed in January, 1866, 
then to No. 6 Washin-non .street,] being succeeded by A. F. Williams, present 
which had just been lini^hed. The concern! cashier. The bank rented the corner room 
carried more sail than ballast, and capsizedlof Odd Fellows Hall, where it has since 
September 15th, 1857, in tiie financial .-^torm! been locatcl. It has been a goveniment 
of that date, with liabiLities to over 8SO,000,| depository from its onsiu, and has done a 
nominal a v?ets 856,000. j large and lucrative business. The circula- 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank. Al-tion during the first tjuarter of 186S waa 
len Mav and G. Lee successive presidents, i8450,0(.M), surplus fund 878,000, deposits 
William F. May and O. Williams,90<3, discounts 8416,0CM) ; commercial 
ive cashiers, began business February, 1 854, | exchange sales in 1867, 83,606,650. 


The InJuina National Bank '.viis oruran- It Ls diflicult to cive with certaintv the 
ized, with i^2o0,0OU capital, March 14:li,! history of tlie dirlereni private bankin'cr en- 

1865, Oliver Tousey being elected president, jtcrprises ol' the city, some of which now vie 
David M. Taylor, cashier. The capital v/as in busino-s and in^portance witli the public 
increased June Gih, LSoo, to S4ijO,U0O, and j organization-. So far as is known, the lirst 
on the 27th of July George Tousey wasj private banking enterprise (though an in- 
elected president, D. E. Snyder, cashier. icorporated company its banking jjrivileees 
D. M. Taylor was chosen cashier November; vrere at first talvcn advantage of only by the 
26th, IStiC. The bank was opened at 19, secretary, Mr. Gregg, ) was the Indianapolis 
North Meridian street in July, 1865, but; Insurance Company, chartered February 
the location being an unlavorable one, it 8th, 1836, with ^2uO,0()0 capital, and with 
was removed November 26th. lMi6, to the insurance and favorable banking powers, 
corner room of Yohn's block, the Branch of. It began operations in April, and for some 
the Bank of the State removing to the back, years did considerable business in insurance 
room, and its business being transferred tojand banking, but gradually deelinei.l. and 
the Indiana National Bank. The bank is'suspended active operations about 1840. It 
a government dc[X)sitory, and since its re-jwas reorganized by Del'recs, Morris and 
moval to the present location has rapidly, others in 1852 or o, and continued till 1S58 
increased in business. The circulation dur-lor 9, when it again suspended. In 1S65 the 
ing June, 1S68, v/as i-350,000, deposits stock was purchased, a new company organ- 
$354,235, di.-counts S2y2,S00 ; exchange! ized, business resumed, and the capital in- 
sales in 1867, S2,787,370. j creased to S500,000. The old Branch Bank 

ino Merchants' National Bank was or-l building was bought in 1S67. It now does 
ganlzed January 17th, 1865, with tlO'XOOOan insurance and banking,' business. Its di.s- 
capital, Henry Schnull. president, Y. T. -counts in the bank department for the first 
Malott, casiiier, and began Inisiness at 23, quarter of 1S6S were f09,220, deposits 
North Meridian street, but rinding that lo-,-^ 159,647 ; exchange sales for fractional 
cation unfavorable it was removed in Janu-!(piarter in 1868,^67,884; average amount 
ary, 1867, to 48 East Washington street, 'of discounted paper held during fractional 
where it has since been located, and has quarter of 1868, S21G, 519. 
done mucli more business. Jolin S. New-j John Wood, exchange broker and bank- 
man became pre.-ident September 1st, 1866,' er, began business in 1838 and continued 
The circulation for the first quarter of 186Sitill September. 1S41, when he failed, caus- 
was S90,U'J0, discounts S132,000, surpliL- ing considerable loss to tlie community from 
funds $6,000, profit and loss S13,500 ; ex-'the shinplasier notes which he had is-ued, 
change sales for 1867-8, i950,000. The'together with tho-e of other equally re-pon- 
bank has nine stockholders. jsible parties, that he had circulated. lie 

• The Citizens' National Bank was organ- soon after left this section, 
ized ' November 28th, 1804, with S200',000i E. S. Alvord A: Co. did a banking busi- 
capital, Isaiah Mansur, president, Asa G.^ness from January, 1839, to 1843, but noth- 
Pettibone, cashier, and began business short-!ing can now be stated as to its extent or 
ly after at No. 3 West Washington street, character. 

It was consolidated December" 1st, 1865,' S. A. Fletcher, Sen., opened an exchange 
with the Fourth National Bank, Isaiah office in 1839 in a one-story frame shed next 
Mansur being elected president, and Jo.-eph to Wolfratu & Rommel's saildle shop, at the 
R. ILuigh, assistant cashier of the combined present No. 8 East Washington street, con- 
coriMjration, v.-hich retained the name of Cit-tinuing there till 1850. when he moved to 
izens' National Bank, and the capital in- the room now occupied by Raschig's cigar 
creased to S3()ti,00<). It was removed to No. store, and from thence in Deceniber,_ 1852, 
2 East Washington street November 20th,;to the present bank, 30 Ea.-t Was'iingtou 

1866. Joseph 11. Haush was elected cashier ^ street, then just built. Timothy R. Fletcher 
in Januarv, 1866. Circulation June, Ibo^, was a partner from 1839 to 1858, when he 
§270,000, deposits .8206,000, discounts S333,-' retired. On the 1st of June, 1S64, S. A. 
000, profit and loss S24,000, surplus fimd Fletcher, Jr., and F. M. Churchman, be- 
SS5,000 ; excha.nge sales in 1567, ■sl,067,-'came partners, S. A. Fletcher. Sen., retiring 
000. - ifro7n the firm. On tlic l^t of January, 1^68, 

The Fourth National Bank was organ- F. M. ChTirchiuan and S. A. Fletcher, Jr., 
ized January 2:]d, 1865. witli a capital of dis>olvcd. S. A, Fletcher, Jr., retiring iroin, 
£100,000, Timotiiv R. Fletcher, president, and S. A. Fletcher, Sen., re-entering the 
Joseph R. Ilauirh", cashier, and Ijcgan ba4-,firm. The bank has done a very lucrative 
ness at No. 11 North Meridian street. It since its origin, increasing us capi- 
was merged and consolidated in December, tal from S3,000 in 1839 to i'2uO,00(J in 
1865, with the Citizens' National Bank, as 1868, and is now the leading pnvatebank, 
above .stated, losing its separate existence. ; doing the heaviest banking business in tiie 



city. The deposits for the first quarter ofi But fevr failures of banks or bankers have 
1S68 were 5-635,000, discounts S560,0(» ; 'occurred here, the following list comprising 
exchange sales in 1S67, $IS:22S.W0. jalwut all that have happened : 

Before the expiration of the old Statel John Wood's bank, established in 1839, 
Bank charter, Calvin Fletcher. Sen., and failed in 1^41. .as before stated. 
Thomas H. Sharpe, who had long been thej In the spring of 1S52 John Woolley & 
pre^iident and cashier of the Branch at this'Co. began a private bank in a one-storv 
point, started the Indianapols Branch Bank-| frame, where No. 4 Blackford's block is 
ing Company on the 1st of January, lSo7,'now, remaining there till the establishment 
at the soutli-west corner of "Washington andjwas merged in the Bank of the Capitol in 
Pennsylvania .streets, where the bank has May, 18-33, and moved to Dunlop's build- 
ever since been located. As the capital of ing, and subsequently to No. 8 East AVash- 
the old Branch was diminished and its bus-|ingion street. The failure of that bank has 
iness clost-d, the capital of the Banking' already been mentioned. It prinluced a 
Company was increased, and it has done arun on the other banks, resulting two days 
large and lucrative busine-s, second only if after in the failure of the savings bank, 
not equal to S. A. Fletcher & Co. Calvin i William E<)bson, A. L. Yoorhees and 
Fletcher, Sen., died May 26th, lS6ti, and! others started a .savings bank in 1854 in the 
his interest in the bank descended to hisVorner room of Odd Fellows Hall, Eobson 
sons, Ingram and Albert Fletcher. Theiand Voorhees being successively the presi- 
capital of the bank is i^200,0<JO. The dis-|dents, and Joseph K. Robinson cashier, 
counts for the lirst quarter of 1868 were! K<jbinson became proprietor in 1857, and in 
$50<,>,000, deposits 5^500,000 ; exchange salesj the panic following the failure of the Bank 
in 1867, 1:^0,147,280. |of the Capitol was compelled to suspend 

Alfred and John C. S. Harri-on started' payment September 17th, 1857. owing Iils 
an exchange otSce in May. 1S54, in the| depositors S15,000. The most if not all of 
second-story room of the .Johnson building, 'this was paid by the receiver in April, 1858. 
remaining there till August, 1855, when the! In the fall of 1862 Kilby Ferguson start- 
adjoining bank building was completed and'ed the Merchants' Bank at No. 2 North 
the bank removed there, where it has sincel Pennsylvania street, K. Ferguson, proprie- 
remained. No change- have occurred in i tor, G. K. Gosney, cashier, and continued 
its ownership since its origin. S. W. Wat- [business there till August, 1863. when by 
Fon is cashier. For the first quarter of 1868 Tea son of unfortunate gold speculations he 
the capital was Sl(X>,000. disi.'Oimts Sl88,-!vas com.pelled to suspend payment. The 
000, dejjosits 8227,347 ; exchange sales indiabilities have lately been settled. 
1867, $2,140,000. j In the spring of 1856 G. S. Ilamer start- 

The Indiana Banking Company, with seven^ed an exchange oiEce in the basement of the 
partners, F. A. W. Davis, president, W. W.' American House, where shaving was close- 
Woollen, cashier, was organized March Ist.'ly done and shinplaster notes circulated, but 
1865, with a capital of $100,000, and Ix'gin'the enterprising financier was arrested in 
business in Vance's building, comer "Wasiii- November for passing counterfeit money, 
ington street and Virginia avenue, Mardi' and shortly after disap[>eared. 
14th, 1865, where the bank remained liil| No effort has hitherto been made to ascer- 
^lay 16th, 1867, when removed to 2.S Ei-t'tain the extent of the dn.- goods and grocery 
Washington street. No chang-es in or'^spi-j trade here. The exchange sales by the 
iziUion or amount of capital have since b'ien' banks in 1867, amounting to .834,614,180, 
made. The discounts for the first quarter' may give an approximate measurement for 
of 1868 were 5394,540, deposits §,380,274 ;! that year, but a large additional sum sliould 
exchange sales in 1867, S3,000,000. ;be added for currency transmitted by ex- 

J. B. Kitzinger opened a savinirs bank ihe press. It may be safe to estimate this sum 
26tli of March, 1868, at 38 East Waslmg-jat >2,884,515," one-twelfth of the total, and 
ton street, J. B. Rhzinger, proprietor, A.lby adding this we get S37,498,695 as the 
W. Kitzinger, cashier ; capital f 50,000. ; approximate importations of groceries and 

Dunlevy, Haire i!c Co., brokers, b^gan' dry goods in 1867, and the trade has rap- 
business in Blake's Conmiercial liow ja idly increased in 1868. 

February, 1856, and continued here for a. A number of i-ailways were cliartered and 
year or two. They were agents of the CIe- re-chartered in 1833-4-5, and eiibrts made 
cinnati banks, and' bankers, to run our Stai^ to build them. Govenunent surveyors ran 
and free banks for gold, and within thret the lines from Lawrenceburgh, Madison 
months afterward had returned S2,O<JO,O0";';ind Lafayette to this point, and from Co- 
currency for redemption. This action caljiimbus to JetTersonville, in Augtist, 1835. 
their part made them and their principal- The fir^t railroad meeting ever, held here 
at Cincinnati very unpopular, and produci^i was on March 24th, 18:i4, to secure sub- 
tlie commercial convention of 1856. jscriptions on the Lawrenceburgh line, from 



individiiaLs and from the county commLj-, street, and the Marion was locatec'l there, 
sioners. ^ . |The company di>banded in October, 1S5P, 

The first meeting of the ^^^n.£C pany by during the trouble preceding the introduo- 
tliat name, was hold at the court house Nlay^tion of the paid department, but re-entered 
ITlh, Kol>ert Brenton, president. Jolai Ho-, the service in Novemlier, and Avas finally 
bart, Hiram Brown, AVra. Quarle;?, and | disbanded Februarj', ISGU. The c^ld enpine 
John 11. Scott were the speakers. jwiis used by the company till July, 1858, 

A meeting was held at the court house] when anew, powerful side hand-brake en- 
June 9th to devise means for the suppres- gine wa.s purchased by the council and giv- 
sion of gambling. Re.-olutions were adopt-en to the company. This machine was sold 
ed, and prosecutions threatened unless the, in April, ISGO, to the town of Peru for 
gamblers left. Meetings of a similar char- S2, ISO. 

acter were held in subsequent years, and an| The Independent Kelief Fire and Hose 
association formed to suppr'.'ss the vice. j Company was formed and incorporated with 
Another raid was made in August, 1835, oni peculiar privileges in 1S41, taking the Good 
the gamblers. j Intent and using it till November, 1849, 

The Indianapolis Brewery, the first one! when it was given to the Western Liberties 
in the place, was started this year near the i Company and a row-boat engine was bought 
canal, on Maryland street, by Young vfc'by subscription and money realized from 
Wernwag. A ropewalk was started onjfairs, and used till August, 1858. The corn- 
Market street, east of the market house. ipany became dissatisfied with it, and bought 

Thf> Tv^nsion a?encv was removed hereji aided by the city,) a powerful hand-brake 
from Corydon in January. jengine a: tiuu time, ^ilxich thoy u.-cd till 

18 35. The State llouse being nearly! they disbanded in November, 1859. Ditli- 
com{)leted, the Assembly, February 7th, di-'culty ensued between the company and the 
rected the State treasurer to insure it. and j city authorities as to the ownership of the 
to buy twenty fire-buckets, and ladders to' engines and other property, but in Februa- 
reach the roof, and if the citizens subscribed 'ry, 18uO, they surrendered everytliing to the 
half the cost of an engine, to subscribe thejcity except the old row-boat engine, which 
balance for the State. A citizens' meeting' was broken up and the materials sold in 
was held on Februan.- 12th. The old fire-i April. ISGO, and the company finally dis- 
bucket conipany reorganized as the Marion ; solved. Their engine house during the 
Fire and Hose and Protection Company. 'greater portion of their existence was in 
The trustees were called on by resolution tol Hubbard's block, on Meridian street, 
subscribe the money for the engine, and Tiie Western Liberties Company was 
levy a fire and public well tax. Calebi formed in November, 1849, taking the old 
Scudder was chosen captain of the company. I Good Intent, and occupying an old frame 
The trustees levied the tax, and subscrip-| house at the fork of Wasliington street and 
tions were also made by individuals; the, the National road, near the race, using a 
State furnished her quota, and in the sum- 1 large iron triangle for a bell, but they 
mer of 1835 the old >Larion, a box. hand-j moved in 1857 to the house now used by 
brake engine, was bought in Phiiaiielphiajthe steam en<:ine No. 1, west of the canal, 
for about SI, SiX"», and duly received here inj In April, 1857, a new hand-brake entrine, 
September. A one-story frame house was; the Indiana, was bought for them, and used 
first built for it by the State in 1S36. but on^till Noveml)er, 1859. when the company 
the 6th of February, 1837, a two-storyi was disbanded, and the steam engine No. 1 
frame house was ordered to be built on the! afterward stationed in their house. The 
north side of the Circle, and was erectedj Indiana was afterward sold, 
during the summer. It wa.s occupied as ani The Invincibles, a company mostly corn- 
engine house and council chamber till the 'posed of Germans, was formed in May, 
summer of 1551, when it was burned and| 1852, in the first ward, and the Victory, a 
the records of the to^vn were destroved with; small hand-brake engine, procure^i shortly 
the house. On the 20th of February, 1838,|afterward, and used by them tidl March, 
the Marion Fire Company was incorporated. 1 1857, when the Conqueror, a fine hand- 
In the spring of 1840, the Good Intent, ai brake engine, was bought and used by them 
box, hand -brake engine, was lx>ught in|till August, 1859, when the company dis- 
Philadelphia, and used for a time 'by thejbanded and surrendered its property to the 
Marion corapanv wiih the old Mari^^n, but: city. The of this company, bui!t_ m 
in 1841 the company was divided, and the:lSo4-.5, just north of Washington on New 
Indej^ndent Eelief' Company was formed i Jersey street, is now occupied by the hcKjtc 
and took the Goo<i Intent. After the burn-| and ladder company. The company waii 
ing of the Marion house on the circle, a large, prompt and etfective, and dunng us 
brick house was built in 185-5-6, at the cor-j existence made several trips to other cities, 
ner of Mas.sachusotts avenue and New York) After the new engine was bought the \ ic- 



tor}- was used by a company of boy.=. After rctary and messenger for ordinary lir.sines:^, 
the fir-t paid department Mas orjanized, and its chief and assistant ensfine directors, 
the Invincible company was re-organized as pipemen, hosenien and brakemen for serv- 
a I'art of it, and the ConqinTor continued in ice. The corporate authorities exercised 
use till the summer of IS'.O, when the com- little control over the firemen until alter the 
puny was tinally disbanded, and the engine city charter in 1S47, and not nnicli tlien till 
sold sliortly at'ter to the town <jf Ft. Wayne. ilSoo, when the oiiice of chief lire tnudneer 

Tlie Union Company, No. 5, was orsran-iwas created and rules prescribed f<jr the 
ized in 1S55, and a house built on South government of the department. Joseph 
street for it in 1S56, and in April of that I.ittle was chosen first cliief May Gth, I800. 
year the "' Spirit of 7 tS: C>," a .JelVers hand-;His successors since that date have been Ja- 
brake engine was bons^ht and used by the'cob B. Fitler, elected ISo-i; Chas.W. Purcell, 
company till Novcmt)er, 1S59, when the'lSo5; Andrew ^Vallac■e, 18ot> ; Josejih W. 
company was di-bandcd and surrender'^d^its' Davis, 1503; John E. Foudray, ISoM; and 
ajiparatus to the city. Some efCjrt was af-'Under the paid department, Joseph W. Da- 
terward made to re-organize the companylvis, lSo9 ; Charles Kichmann. Ls'Go ; Geo. 
under the paid department, but without suc-iW. Buchanan, 1S67 ; Charles Kichmann, 
cess. The engine was sold at S6<}0 in Octo-'^Iay, 1S68. 

ber, 1S60, as part pay for the steam eaijine: The volunteer system worked well till 
No. 3, which was subsequently statione<l in[lSo7. The rivalry between the companies 
the Union house. !produce<i good results; but the orgar.ization 

The Rover Fire Company was formed in of the tire assr>ciation in L's-ifi. wbil»' rpivi.^r. 
tlie tliliii and loartii wards in 3iarch, L"<58.iing the department more i-flicient, also made 
A house wa.s secured for them, one of the' it a political machine and increased the de- 
oM assigned to them, anil steps tak-imands on the treasury. Contiicts and jeal- 
en to purchase an engine, but before any-jousies gradually arose Ix'tween the compa- 
thing was done the approaching change of; nies, and on the choice of J. W. Davis as 
system became evident, and the companyjchief engineer in May, I808, disputes arose 
was disbanded in June, 1S59, and the house!as to the fairness of his election and man- 
sold in 1800. Hose companies were simul-iagement. The dis,sen-ion imjiaired the efli- 
taneously formed for each of the foregoing ciency of the orsranization, and the trouble 
fire companies, and the necessary hose,! was not entirely healed the next year tmder 
reels and other apj.aratus furnished to tr.em.jFoudniy. It broke out afresh in August, 

A hook and ladder company was formedil8o9, on the proposition to substitute a paid 
in 1813, a.- a part of the old volunteer de-idepartment, which was earnestly advoc-aled 
partuient, and the necessary wagon, ladders, I by Davis. The Invincibles disbanded in 
ro{)es, hooks, axes and buckets procured.! August, ISi'Q, tiie Marions and Westerns in 
The company continued its organization till; October, the Eelief, ]i(;ver and Union in 
disbanded with the rest of the department | November, and the city was lel"t for a short 
November 14th, 18-59, but was re-organized! time without a tire organization. The Mar- 
as a part of the paid department, and still dons re-entered the service in November, 
continue^! in service, occupying the old In-'but finally disbanded in February, IStJO. 
vincible house on North New Jersey street. jThe volunteer department in the spring of 

Tiie Young America Hook and 'Ladder! 18-59 included six engine and six hose coni- 
Comjiany was fornK;d in ]*day, 1858, and 'panics, with ab<3Ut fcnn- hundred and eighty 
got their wagon and apparatus in June, re-! men; two hook and ladder companies, with 
maining in service till disbanded in Novem-Uibout one hundred men : one chief and two 
ber, 18-59. In December, 1849, a number ia.ssistant engineers; seven houses, and ai)OUt 
of bovs formed the "O K Bucket Company,"! seven thous;ind feet of hose, 
and procured a wag(m and the old laddersj It was evident that a change wouild have 
and leather fire-buckets which belonged todo be made in coti-equence of the di.—en-ion 
the State and private citizens, and to theUrising over the election of engineer in May, 
Indianapolis Fire Company in tl-.e earliest i 1858, and on account of the rapidly-inc reas- 
organization of the department. The coun-ling expense of the system. Fire_ alarms 
oil subsf-quentlv gave them a new wa'j:onUvere very frequent, and the companies were 
and buckets, and provided a house Yorjcharged with their origin. The council, in 
them. Thev were etfective— generally get-i August, 1859, declared it inexpedient to re- 
ting the first water on fires— until thev dis-'organize the volunteer department. The 
banded in 18-54. The com]ianv was revived; fire committee reported. September 4th, in 
in 18-55, but dLsbanded finallv in 1856, the'tavor of a paid system, and the purchase of 
bov.s takin- the Victorv formerly used bv!a third-class steam engine, and scliin? the 
the Invincibles. ' ' ' jold Belief and Good Intent engine--. A 

Underthe volunteer svstem each company! Latta steani entwine was exhibited here Scp- 
was indoi.endent, having its president, sec-jtentber 2;xl-4th at the county fair, and tried 


atthe Palmer House ci.-tcrn before the com-itlie building. Two -R-atohmcn have since 
mittee. A Lee c<: Larned engine was alsoibeen employed, giving the locality of the 
brought here and tried October loth and "fire by pirikinir the number of the viard. In 
22d, at the canal. It wa? determined to February. 1808. a tiro-alarm telcrrrupli was 
buy one of the Lee A: Larned machines, and adopted, and the wires boxes and tixturc-s 
on the :'Oth of March. ISOO, it was received' completed and put in operation bv the end 
and stationed at the We-tern engine house. |of April, at a cost of abuut S'j,0<!0.* 
On the 14ih of November, 1859, the old! During the existence of tl'ie first bucket 
volunteer depanment was disbanded by or-!fire company the dejiendence for wn'cr was 
dinance, and a paid department, consisting' wholly on private wells. After the Marion 
of one steam and two hand engines, and a and Good Intent engines were buu-ht a few 
hook and ladder company, was authorized, [large public wells were dug in the central 
and J. W. Davis made chief engineer at a; part of town. The first cisterns itwo in 
Siilar>- of ?300. C. Kichmann and W. Sher- nr.mlx-r, holding tiiree hundred barrels 
wood were made captains of the two hand'each,) were built by the trustee jrovemmeni 
engine companies, W. \\. Darnell of tlie in the spring of 1840, but it was not till Oc- 
hook and ladder company, and Frank Gla- tober, 18-32, when a cistern tax was ordered 
zier engineer of the steamer. Some diffi-:by special election, that any number of cir- 
cuity was experienced informing the hand terns were built. iSixtcen were constructed 
companies on account of the general oppo-iby the close of 1853, and since that date fifty 
sition to the chief engineer, but the force' two, ran?ing from three hundred to eighteen 
T.-a3 ftilly organized ^y January, l-^-O. Thf^hundrc'' ^-arrel?, ha->-e >^eon >^".i)t in vari'-w 
engineer was ordered to sell the old and 'quarters of the city, and though the supply 
surphis apparatus. The Marion endue was'ds still inadei(uatc, the protection is ample 
sold in April, 1860, to Peru ; the Union in'atrainst all ordinary fires. In the spring of 
October to the Seneca Falls Company ; the; 1808 SGOO were appropriated to bore an ar- 
Conqueror in February, 1861, and the re- tesian well to test the project for supplying 
manider since that period, the la.-t one be- cisterns from underneath the surthce. ' At 
ing .sold within the last year. iprcscnt they are filled from wells, and the 

In August, 1S60, a ihird-clas? Latta en-' creek and canal by the endnes. or bv a 
gine was bought, arriving here in October, | steam j^ump, built for the purpose in 1S04, 
and was st itioned at the old Marii.m house.'at a cost of about 61,000. 
A Seneca Falls engine was exiiibiteii at the! Though so largely built of wood, this 
State fair, and tried October 22d before a I city has been remarkably fortunate in re- 
committee of the council in competition gard to fires. The streets are so wide, and 
with the other engines, the result being that the department has been so prompt, that 
the council purchased it at So. oO'.>. dving fires rarely go beyond the houses in which 
the old Union at S600 in part pay, and sta- they originate. As the present buildings 
tioncd it at the Union house on South street. 'are replaced by brick, stone or iron struc- 
Frank Glazier was appointed engineer of tures, with fire-proof walls and roofs, the 
the No. 1, Charles Curtis of the No. 2, and immunity from destructive conflagrations 
Daniel Glazier of the No. 3. Hosemen and 'will be still greater. The o^dinar^- rates of 
pipemen were also appointed, and but few insurance are too hi2:h for this city, and our 
chanrjes have since been made in the force.! people are now iielpinsj to insure property 
After seven years' trial of the three en^rines,, in cities like Chicagti, where more loss Ls 
the council in 1867 purchased an additional frec[nent!y suffered in a single fire than oc- 
Seneca Falls machine, No. 4, which was re- 'curs here in a year. 

ceived and put in service in December, andj The State Board of Agriculture was char- 
the No. 3 sent back for repairs. These tered in February, 1835, Jas. Blake, Larkin 
vere completed and the engine renimed in'Simms, John Owen and M. M. Henkle, di- 
March, 1''68, the whole cost of the new rectors ; James Blake, president, M. M- 
engine and the repairs on the old one bein^r' Henkle, secretary. Premiums were offered 
about SG, 50<). Tiie Latta engine was then April 28th for essays on specified subjects, 
relieved nom service for repair^, and tliL^ and rules adopted for organizing county so- 
I^e tfc Liirned will be repaired in its turn, cicties. The first State acricrdtural c-'nvcn- 
The department is now in an efiicient state. .tion met December 14th, 1835, in Ktp-'o- 
All the horses, hose, reels and other appar-lsentatives' Hall, and several annual mictniys 
atus have been provided by the council, were afterwards held, btit the entirpri-e 
For some years after the organization of th.'died in a few years. Meetings were li'-ld at 
paid department no central alarm existed. 'the court hoase June 6th aiui,rm 
but in the spring of 1863 an alarm tower a county agricultural society unotr the 
and bell was placed in the rear of Glenn^" State Eo'ard rules. N. B. Fahmr was pr.-.s- 
block, and connected by wires and pulley- ident, D. Maguirc, secretary. >m^'"np^ions 
with l!"^ watchmen's .station on the tower "of were made for premiums, and the Loard of 



Justices al>o appi-'->).ii-iatc-.l tlftydMlla-^. Tlie;t]ie LoLji-laturL- had given .flOO.OOO for 
fir.-t lair was held OeloW-r oO-l in tlic court! open roads, liud of:ou asked aid to ini- 
hoHse yard. One hundred and eighty-four! prove die rivers, and had chartered many 
dolhirs were awarded in preniiiuns. Mucli; railway-. From various causes these e.>:- 
int crest was niauiio-ted. Four hun.Ired penditurt-s and ctlbr:s had eti'ected little, 
dollars were subscriVied I'or the next iair.j\Vith iiicrcasing resources the demand for 
Annual fairs were held by the society for* greater facilities increased. The 2\ational 
two or three years. Iroad gave an impetus to other projects of 

In the fall the papers said much im- more doubtful utility. A pressure from all 
proveracnt was goim; on. Property had i sides was brought to bear on the Assembly, 
doubled in value in two years, and liu.-ine-s aiid on the 2t'th of .J:^nuary, 1S3C>. tb.e in- 
lois on "Wasiiington street were seUing atiticrnal im'n'ovemcnt bill was parsed. The 
fiftv, sixtv-two and seventy -live dollars peri State not oidy undertook several great 
fiMui fiX't". [works, hut extended aid to others under pri- 

The BonevolcJit Society was formed Xo-|vate companies. The act wa.s greeted with 
vember, ISoo, with a president, secretary,! rejoicing. Bonfires and illuminations 
treasurer, depository and visitors, and has [marked the spread of the new*. Our citi— 
been active and efficient to the present date, zens were especially elated, for several of 
Its system has always been the same, and the works terminated or crossed at this 
prevents street begging. Funds and cloth-i point, and more than one otitlet would ex- 
ing are collected in specined districts in the ist to the world. A general illumination 

fall by visitors, who dt-po4t the same with 
tlie orticers, and who ai^u a,-M.L-iiuui >w.d re- 
port all cases needing aid. Written orders 
for money, clothes or provisions are given 
to applicants, and transient cases are cared 

took place here on the night of Januarv 
inth, c;fLcr the ^-a^-^e ^f the bill nid ])e- 
come a certainty. The bill at once im- 
proved tlie prosp.ects of the town. Property 
rose in p/rice rapidly, new houses were built, 

for 'by a special committee. The society the settled limits extended westward, me- 
has been snstaineil by private contributions, chanics were Inisy, merchants^ sold large 
the city and town-hip authorities fumi-hingjstocks, money was plenty, and cvcr^• one 
wood onlv when needed. Mr. James Blakej prosperous. Tliis continued nearly three 
has beon'thc pre-ident for many years, and lyears, when ftmds gave out, pitbliy works 
much of the good effected by tlie enterprizeistopped, trade ceased, property declined, la- 
ha-: been due to his zeal anil energy. |borers vrent elsewhere, and ruin _ stared 

Tb.e Young Men's Literary ScJcie'.y. de-ievery one in the face. The hard times of 
signed for debate, compositioii and generalilS39— 12 were sorely felt. The leading bus- 
mental improvement, was formed in l>>35,iiness men were most involved, and for years 
and continued its meetings for twelve or fif-; their lives were struggles to save something 
teen years. It was incorporated in April,] from the wreck. The forbearance of cred- 
18-17' under the general law, collected ajitors alone saved them from ut:er poverty, 
considerable librarv, and from 1 843 to lS48|The bankrupt act of 1S41 atTordc-vl relief to 
gave each winter a series of lectures by itsj the whole country, easing the general dis- 
member-, and others from abroad. It was tress, and enabling many to get another 
the succe^-or here of the Indianapolis Ath-!start. From this time till 1847 ihe_ town 
eneum, and the precur.-or of the 1-cture so-iremained a dull countrv' village, with_ so 
cieties'ofthe pre^^ent d;.v. junfavorable an experience of internal im- 

The winter of 1S34-0 had been cold and'provements that our capitalists .-ub-equently 
protracted. The spring was backv,-ard. I kept out of them or aided them but Uttle. 
More rain fell in Mav and June than ini Under the interiial improvement system 
anv season before for ten years, and at Fort;the central canal, frr>m the ^^ab;sh toEv- 
W'avne ten Indies of water fell lii two hours, iansvllle, together with several railroads Irom 
the"«torm bein- limited to a small space.! various points, had been intended to centre 
This statement was made by Jes^e L. Wil-lhere. All were abandoned in lboV\ after 
Hams State eivdneer on the Vv'aba.-h canal.! much work had been done. The :\Iadisoii 
There was a hard fro^t on the morning ofj railroad had been completed nearly to \ er- 
Julv l^t followed bv a hot and drv season, non and graded to Columbus. It was oper- 
clo^ing on the niglU of August l^th in abated by the State tiU 1S43, then -irrendered 
tornado of wind and rain, unroofing houses,:to a company, and nnallyhnislied m Ucto- 
de^troving fences, timber and crop-, and ber, 1847. Before competing lines reduced 
' ' t-attle and hogs. The foUow-lts tratiic it made more money ihv.n anv 

iroad in the country. The State was cheated 
'out of her interest in the road, and the road 

183G The want of natural channels 'itself, after losing business and importance, 
for trade had prompted many improvement was finally bought and operated by the Jei- 
schemes in past ye;irs, and at an early day.Iersonville line. 

killing hors 

ing winter lasted till April 


The canal -n-a? nearly done when nban-'urer's report showed Sl.BlO receipts for the 
doned ; .^l. 000,000 hiid been expended, and year, and SI, 150 of this ?uni had been ex- 
a corapanitively .'^.'nali pum w^uld pended lor the Marion ensfine and in di^'- 
comjdeted it from X';ble-ville to ^I;irtins-j2in:i: live pul)Iic well.-, and other tire de- 
ville. It wa- be^iin in October, iSoG, v,:.rk partraent expense?. A b;danee of SV24 wa.s 
being pro-cetited Finiuhaneoiisly alonsr ii.s^turned over to the n-.w •:rovennnent.' The 
line by fr-ani:^ ""'f Iri>liinen, whose disnnte.-'new board passed ordinances regulating 
with spade and shillelah gave animation to! markets, ordering tlie streets to be opened, 
their enoa'npments. A great debate of tliis and prohibiting riots, dnmkennes-, liorse- 
ki'id occurred in 1S.'>S near town, between racing and indecent lan^'ungc ini the street.?. 
the Corkonians and fardowners, several | The A^ork on the National roaii in the 
hundred di-putants being engaged, and the la.=t few years had attracted many men of 
discussion occupying tiie crreatcr part of the;bad chamcter and habits to this point. 
day. The sections to Noble.sville and Mar-jThese, banded togetlier under a leader of 
tinsvillc were nearly ready, and that to:great size and strength, were lonu' knov.-n as 
Broad Ripple ^u-as tinislied late in Xovem-j" the chain gang," and kept the tov,-n in a 
ber, 1S;-^S. and opened for use June ^Tth.ihalf snbjucrated state. A--aults were often 
183',), with an excursion by boats to Piroadicommitted. citizens threatened and in-ulted, 
Ripple in July. Considerable nreparationsiand potty outrages pcrpi.-trated, until at last 
were made for tratlic on it. Several freightja meeting was called March Oih at th.e court 
and passenger boats were built, and riour,' house to take the matter imder advisenient. 
timber, grr.i:'., ;*:c., '^ere b'-^iigbf- +'rArii Pt-^.!,] I Hnrrod Vr-ulnnd. a rf-volutionarv -ioldier. 
Ripple and above. The mill sites hereiwas chosen jiresident and made a radical 
■were leasi-d June 11th, 1S3S, and one wool-jspeech against the gang. Resolutions were 
en, one coit'-.n, two paper, one oil, trt'o gri-tiadopted to aliate the luii-r.nce. The citizens 
and two saw- mills built <iiort!y afterward. 'resolved to elect tru-tces and oliicers who 
The power proved less than was promi=ed,j would see the ordinances enforced, and 
the canal not having tall enough to ciu-e aipledired themselves to a-^si.-t them. The 
free flow of water, but the mills v.^ert tokletermined stand taken sninewhat awe<l the 
work, and with others '=ince built haveigang, and they became less bold in their 
greatly benefitted the place. Tiie nuliersidemonstrations. At the camp-meeting in 
were always complaining of scant water and! August on the military ground-, the leader 
much moss ; tlie people grumbled wlien thejoiade .-ome disturbance and was knocked 
-water was drawn off to clean the bed ; andjdoMm and subjugated by Rev. James Ilav- 
the Assembly, wearied by the inces-antjens, the preacher in char-e, and shortly af- 
complaint, January 19tli, 1S50, ordered theiterward v.-as also sonndiy whipped by Sam- 
canal to be sold, 'it was soon after .■'old to tiel Merrill. These def-.ats broke liL- pres- 
persons who were chartered as a companyltige, the gang was demoralized, and most of 

in Februar.-, IS-jl. In April the company 
sold to Gould & Jackson, who sold in L>cto 
ber, 1851, to "The Central Canal, Plydrau 
lie Waterworks and Manufacturing Com- 

them left the town or ceiled their lawless 

The second homiciile here occurr(?<l April 
27th, Zachariah Collin- being killed bv Ar- 

pany." This companv sold to another nold Lashly. The cnmty agricultural so- 
compnny in 1859, who" now rent out ihelciety held its <econd fair -at the court 
power. " For years after the first sale it wasjOctober 7tii and Sth. C. Fletcher deHvere<i 
regarded as a nuisance, and propositiims tO|an address, stating that 1,300,000 bushels of 
fill it up were seriouslv considered in thejoorn had been raised this year on the thir- 
council, both in 1S55 and 1858, but having! teen hundred farms in the county. Luke 
lately been kept in better order the opposi-'Munsell copyrigiited a map of the town 
tionha.s nft?asurablv abated. It was drv fori May 30th, and Wm. Sal!ivan publi-hed a 
months in 1S47, from the breaking of thelmap of the town in October. A great camp 
banks and acqtteduct, and in lSoG-7 fromfmeeting was held on the military Erround 
the breaking of the feeder dam at Broadj August '25-30, under James Havens and 
Rii'ple. It "^now furnL-^he.s mill power and John C. Snath. One hundred and thirty 
transportation for wood and hisrs. Theexperienced religioiu Professor C.RBron- 
conipanv owning it iatelv sued for the pos-ison [died in New York, April, ISGS.J gave 
session of apart of the militarv park, on i the first lecture here on elocution, Augu-st 
the ground that It passed at the" sale as an 1 30th. ^ fiiram Devinnv began the manuiac- 
apptirtenance of the canal 

ture of mattrasses cushions and carpets here 

The town having been specially incorpo-'in October. 


February bv the .Vsserabiv. 

he' The new AVashington Hall, a three-story 
new board of trustees "^vas elected under the brick hotel, built by a companv in l"-^t)-7, 
act in April, and the officers of the old on the =^ite of the old frame \\ ashingtmi 
board settled to April 1st, 1836. 

The treas-TIall, at a cost of S30.0'.X', was opened by E. 



Brownin- November 16th, and koi>r by him'The Palmer House, a two-and-a-half-#torv ' 
till March loth, ISol. Ic was tlKii one ol'ibrkk. w;us built in 1840-1 by X. B. Palmer, 
the lar-ost and bc:^t -we-tcrii luno!-. had a'on Washini:ton and Illinois* strecU, and 
hitrh reputation, and wa.- the 'W'hl'^ head-jopened by John C. Parker in the summer 
quarters for its entire existence. It was, ot 1841. "it w:us eidar::;ed and rai.-ed to four ! 
damaged by fire S3,0C'O in February, 184:>,|stories in 18o6 by Dr". Barbour, the le^-':e. ' 
and came near burning up. Several at-j Parker, Barbour,'.!. I). Carmichael, D. Tut- 
tempts were made to burn it in May and, tie, C. W. Hall, B. Mason, and (Uhers have 
June, 184S. It was sold to F. Wright in, been its lessees. It has always kept the 
March, 1851, was subsequently kutwn asjsame name, was for some time the leading 
the Wright House, was successively keptjliouse, and has had a fair sliare of patnm- 
by Henry Aohey, Kol)ert Browning, Burg-iage. Little's Hotel, first built in 18:J4 or o, 
ess t^ Towulcy, W. J. Elliott, Louis Eppin- on New Jersey and Wasliincrtdu streets, by 
ger and others, and wa.^ bought in Marchjjohn Little, and known then as Little's Sun 
and remodeled in the summer of 18o9 by|Tavern, i,from the si2:n, a blazir.g sun,) was 
the Glenns, and is now known as Glenns" originally a small two-story frame house, 
block, the lower story being used as bu.sinessi A fhrec-story ell wxs added by M. and I. 
rooms, and the upper by the council, city' Little in 1847, and in 18ol the old frame 
officers and police, with the fire tower and, was moved to East and Washington streets, 
alarm on the roof. A very brief mention land a three-story brick front buiMing put 
may be given here of the other leading lio-jin its place. It also has frequently chansred 
tols ''*: v-T-!''^'!^ ,^■y^n< in tl,,^ K;jt,,rv nf tlvno-Toe'^s 'i^t '^''^ reta'"^"] its old r-inm. The 
town and city. j Duncan House, a three-story brick, sui>se- 

John McCormick was the first tavern andjquently the Barker and the Kay Hou.-e, 
boarding-house keeper, beginninij in the, was built in 1847 on South and, Delav/are 
spring of 18'20 on tlie river hank, in a little|strects, by K. B. Duncan. It did a g(X)d 
cabin with small pens around it as sleeping|busines,s for some years, but iuis long been 
apartments for his guests. In 1821 Hawk-| mostly devoted to boarders. I>. .J. Barker, 
ins, Carter and Nowland each opened ''tav-jM. M. Kay and others have been lessees. 
erns," — Xowland in a cabin on WaslsingtoniThe Carlisle Hou-e, a three-story frame, 
street west of the canaL He shortly after built by Dan Carlisle in 184S, on Washing- 
died, and his widow, Elizabeth Nowland.lton street, west of the canal, has so often 
in 1823 opened a boarding-house where |chantred names and Iessee.s that they are 
Browning's drug ^tore is now, continuing! unknown. From its position it never did 
there for many years. Carter's '' Kosebush|as good a business as other hou.-es, and is 
Tavern," a two-story ceiled frame, eishteeninow used as a brewery. The Morris House, 
by twenty feet, built in 1821-2, at 40 West. a two-and-a-half-story brick, su^'setiuentiy 
Wiishington street, was occupied by him till'much enlarged and raised to four stories, 
182.3. It was afterward moved mar the ca-'and known as the "American." "Mason," 
nal, and then near the soldiers' home, wherejand '•Sherman House," was built by Th'jS. 
it yet stands. Carter in 1823 built a two- A. Morris in 1852-3, north of the Union 
story frame tavern opjMX-ite the court house, depot, and has done a good business. It 
Avhich was burned in 1825. Hawkins'ihas often changed its lessees. The Bates 
" Eagle Tavern," a double log hou.-e, wasi House, a four-story brick, which has re- 
built in the fall of 1821, where the .S'^^u/i/u.^jtained its name though often chanaring les- 
ofiice is now, the lo.^s being cut irMii the lotjsees, was built on the corner of Wasliingion 
and street. It stood there till 1826 or 7, land Illinois streets in 1852-3, by Harvey 
when it was rejilaced with a small two-story {Bates, and has since been much enlarged, 
brick. Bazel J!rown took it in 1829, anil. being the largest and leading hotel of the 
was succeeded by John Hare. Cainicity, and doing perhaps the lieaviest basi- 
and others. It w-;ls torn down in 1>49 The Oriental, a four-stor\- brick buijt 
replaced bv the Capital House, winch was'in 1856-7, and opened in Juno by Francis 
opened by" John Cain July 14th, 1.550, andiCostigan, has retained its name tiinnzh often 
snb^equentlv succeedeil bvD. D. Sl'jan andjchanging lessees, and has done a fair busi- 
others, till "March, 1857, when it was occu-;ness. The Tremont, afterward the Spencer 
pied by the Saidnel as a printing office., Iloa-e, a four-storv- brick, wxs built on the 
It has since been used a.s a printing ofiice'corner of Louisiana and Illinois streets, near 
and bindery, and for business r.jom.- and of- the Union depot, in 1857, and ha.s done a 
fices. It w'as the first four-storv- house built'gocKl business under J. W. Canan and oth- 
here. The succe.-^sive hotels "on this .siteiers, its le.<,-ees. The Farmers', now the 
were the Democratic headquarters; and it|Comrnercial Hotel, wa.s built m l^o6 bv 
was at the Capital House, as the most styl-;Henrv- Buehig, as a three-story brick and 
ish in the citv, that Kos<uth was lodgedjenlarged and raised to four stones by t . A. 
durin'^ his visit here in Februarv, 1852.iReitz in 1864. It had often changed lessees. 


The Macy Ilou-e. a thrce->tory brick, was: uf the company. The risks a.^umccl durin? 
built by David >[:icy, on Illinois and Mar- the tirst year' amounted to SloG.UOt) ; its 
ket streets, in IS-j", and has since been oc-'present risks to So.l4t5,000 ; cash and prc- 
cupicd mostly by boarders. A lar^je num-imiura notes on hand in April, ISGS, $284,- 
ber of otlier_ less important houses exist, -187; losses in last year, clO,G06 ; no uuad- 
mostly built in the la.-t ten years, but wantijusted liabilities. 

of spice forbids further mention of them. | The Indiana Fire Insurance Companv— 
The Indianapolis Insurance Company was a mutual companv — wxs or-anizcd Mav 
charteredtor luty years lebruary stii, ls36,,.ith^ 1S62, under the <jeneral lav.- of ks.rj 
with a capitalot ^200,UUO. in filty dollarj-m,! the otSce has since been located in Odd 
shares, and with very tavorable banking! peHows Hal!. Jonathan S. Hurvev wa.^ 
pnviU-cs. It was organized March Itithiehosen president, and W. T. Gib.on, 'secre- 
vsith nine director^. D. Maguire being pres-Jtarv, at the time of tlie organization, and 
ident and C. r^cudder, secretary, and began h^ve served till the present time. The 
operations m April. It did a lunued busi-j^mount of risks as.sumed bv the company 
ness for many years, but finally suspended, during the first fiscal vear was about JGOO,'- 
operations in ISoy or 'GO. In 18Go the oldi(,oo, and the amount' now incurred is bc- 

stock was purchased and a new company 
organized, with Wm. Henderson as presi- 
dent and A. C. Jameson, secretarv. Tiu 

tween eight and nine millions. 

The .Sinni>sippi Mutual Insurance Com- 

, , 4 1 T> k .->n 1 ic(-- iP^nv was organized November ISth, 18G3, 

charter was amended December -'Oih, ISbo,', y .i " , , .^, t-,.. , ,, ,' 

^, •. 1 * --,A,„u-iu . '.under the ecneral law. with hiiiah Ooofl- 

increasing the capual to ^•JUO,(J<_MJ hv vote oil,..; • r 4. t i t> t> 

,, ^ I? 11 . , », - win nrf^'-:Kipnt, .lolm K. liCrrv. secretarv. 

the stocktiolders, and making the companvi„j' ' . ^ . . .•,, .-.,,r, v* 

, HM 1 i r) I Ti 1 I Ml- ■ ''^i^fi continued its operations till l&Ob. It 
perpetual. Ihe old Branrh Lank ouildiiitr' - .. , , • f j- i i u ■ 

' ^ , , .. , ^ --OA ,„,A - ^jinavertised exten^iveiv, did a large business, 

was ])urchasel tor about >--.(>,U()U irom tliei,- ,, i • i / *- j i 

o- 1 • 7^ 1 • 4 -1 I ,^- 1 ^1 r- incurred risks (manv ot danirerous charac- 
binkuiij r und, in A]>ril, Ifto/, and the ot-i ^ - - ■ - 

teri to the amount of millions of dollars, 


fice has since been hx^ated there. It is nowi -i i i • i ■ • 

, . . J 1 1 • paid cood salaries anil comnussions 

doin<? a prosTierous insurance and banking;:- ■ , , i i „ <, 

, .'^ ^ .' ! 1 • 1 11 '^1 incurred heavy exiK'Uscs and losses. As- 

business, and ranks high among the Homei ^^^^^^^,,^^^ were rapi^dlv made on the premi- 
enterprises ot the city. I ^ ^^j ^j^^ co.npanv broke in 18GG, 


other insurance 
mav be brlellv 


receiver s 


and its af- 

Ihe othoe 

East Market 

here ^'^'■'"^^' n 
™, T !• - AT . I T- 1 r. ■ tairs are now being closed up 

Ihc Indiana Mutual 1- ire Insurance Lorn- e .-, „„„ J'^^ „» .3: ^ 

, , ,1 ,-,,, , ,00- ot the companv was at o-: 

pany was chartered .January' oUth, 18.3/,;^. . '■ 

and amendments made to the act at severali'' „,'„.,,„. ^ ^ 

subsequent dates. It was or-anized in Feb-I The Equitable I ire Insurance Company 
ruarv with James Blake., president, Charles ^^'^^ organized on the mutual plan in ^ep- 
W. Cadv, secretarv, and be-an busines.s inif*5"\^er, 18G,\ under the general law, ^^ . A. 
starch in an office opposite the Washington il'^'i^^^ president, ED Ul.n. .-.cretary. and 
Hall. It was prosperous and did a goodi'^^^ ^^^^ '-'P^'^e'l in Odd lellows ILall. The 
business for two or three vears, but from in-|company was authorized by law m 1,m,o to 
hprent defects in the plan, heavv losses and^^.l^^ipge the character 01 us bu^me^ssub^tan- 
m'ismana^cmcnt, became involved, insolv-iti^lly to the stock system,^ di.i.ensing with 
ent, and tinallv suspended operations aboutlP'^tmium notes and receiving premiums in 
fifteen veir^ ""o cash. Its operations were liiaued mostly 

The 'In.liana" Fire Insurance Companv to the centre and north of the State, but its 

wa-s chartered in Februar^', ISol, ,vith ajV^^Pf^-^^*^ ^^"'i 1«^^^V''''"^, *-■''' '"'i^''?''7 
nominal capital of $300,0o0, and was organ- l^ January or Februarv, 1m,5, and its al- 

ized May 1st, 1851, ■ be-^^^\^-^ ^^e bein^ adjusted by a receiver. Ihe 

ing president, sccreta- o^^'^ ^^''^'■^ '^ Odd lellows Hail. 

ry. It did a limited business, and sus-l The Home Mutual Insurance Company 
pended operations after a few yeai-s. |wa.s orcranized in April, 18G4. umkr the 

The (ierman Mutual Fire Insurance' seneral law, with J. C. Geiscndort}', presi- 
Companv wa> organized under the general; dent, J. B. Follett, secretary. Its bu.-mcss 
law January 21st','l8o4, and has successfullyjwas conducted substantially on the same 
conducted its business to the present date.! plan as that of the Equitable Company, but 
Its offic-e wa-s first located at 81 \Vash-jwas mostly coniined to risks in the city and 
in^ton street, removed in 1859 to Judah's: vicinity. Not being very remunerative, 
block, and in March, 18GG. to IG South Del- [and some losses having occurred, the coiii- 
aware street. Henry Busher, Julius Boet-jpany voluntarily suspended operations in 
ticher and A. .^eidensticker have been tlie,June, 18GS, and its business is beui^ closed 
pre^^idents, and A. Seiden.-,ticker, Valentine bv a receiver appointed by the court ihe 
Butsch, Charles Yolmar, Charle.^ Balke,!office was most of the time at G4 L:ist \\ asli- 
Adolph Miller and F. Eitzinger secretaries jiugton street. 


The rarnuri' a:id >Lrc:uu-it.s' In>urunco in 1S5S-9 erected a four-story brick build- 
Company was orffanized on the same jrener- ing on Xorth Pennsylvania street as an oi- 
al j)lan and under the same law as tlie two tlce and (or bu-iness purposes, 
foregoing comjianies, on tlie 1st of Ai>ril, 

18GI, witli Evland T. Br )wn as provident.! lSo7. At a mcetin;: held February li'id 
and A. J. Davis, secretarv, and the officeiit ^'''a-? decermmed by the young men to form 
located in Blackford's block. It eontinuedU>- niilitary company, and at subseqr.ent 
its operations, doing a m.,.lei-ate liusiness in meetings a con.-titution, by-laws and \;ni- 
the central portion of the State, till the sum-:toi-ni were adopted, members enrolled, and 
mer of 18G7, when it suspended, and its af-i'^^cei--^ elected, Alexander W. Kus^ell bemg 
fairs are now in process of settlement. j captain, and serving till Atigust. 1838. when 

m. T • T I' „„ Ihomas A. Morris suc'L-eded and command- 

The Lmon Insurance Com])anv was or-i , . ,. ,. , ,,., 

, ,, , > I .r 1 ed the companv tor vears afterward, ihe 

gamzed on the srock iilan luider the general .. ^ - • "i i . i i . .■ • 

■r . ., . .-lo,.- -.I % 1 ,, uniform was srav wuli black velvet lacine-, 

law, in the sprinfr ot iMto, witli a capual of; , , ,, i '.i ' -.i i 

.-..wvA A,-,.> T Af t. 1 • -I ..and tall leather caps with pompons and 

biOO.OuO, .James M. Plav being pre-idcnt,', . „,,' ^ ' , 

1 T-» \\- /• 11 ■ • 'Ti ^a- ' orass mountings, ihe connianv was 

and D. V> . CTruhiH, secretarv. Ihe oftice, . , , , "^ i j -n i i c" . • 

,. , 1 . vp ,, ,, .- ^. ■ ] M 1 with muskets and drilled bv f?cott s lactics. 

was hrst o])ene<l in lalbott i\: jsews build-,. ,i t , • .• '• ,i c, t^ „, 

,. ' , • , . 1 , J : lit was the best ori.'ani/.ation in ttie .btate, at- 

mc on IVunsvlvauia street, but removed in- , , ... j „) 

-lo - . T> "i » 1 -1 1- T T> -\i t- itracted niucii admiration on parade, and 


-lo - . T> "i » 1 -1 1- T T> -\i t- itractect niucii admiration on parau 

ISo/ to I)unlops huudi.uu-. J'.. B. 31artin-' . , ■,, loi- ti *;/• i ■ ' 
J , 1,1 •) 1 r- -I IT existed till lb4o. llie Oravbacks 

dale was elected president, and (.reorge W .Li n .. • i i .. ' ^ „ 

-r. ^ rp, ;^ 1 the first independent companv, and uere 

Dunn, secretarv. ihe ccimpanv continued • u • * j c-.i ',,".' i,i, i,;"3 

.^ - , ' -1111 -u I -1 Iheir fine discipline and .soldierlv bearing 

nicetintr with considerable ln-<es, till April. ] .i i i , . :r. '- 4--^i;„ , 

,,..,■, ■ 1 , • 1 , -^ .-aroused tlie lonir dormant muitarv leelm;:, 

lSo8, V, hen It was deteriiu.ied to cio.=e ITS at-l ■, , ' • ,, - . i ^ ..,1,. ;-tanv,-.,r. i 

,..',,.,,, 1. • 1 i;ind other companies \\(.Te sliortl\ aUerv. anJ 

tairs and dissolve the companv. its nsks' , i • 1 '. j • ■ •*" t> , : 

,. , . 1 •• ,1 Ti formed in the tov,-n and vicinitv. Bromi- 

were accordmg y re-insnred ,n the Homd ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^_^ ^^.^^,^ ^1^^ "," or 

lire Insurance Lompany o Xesv \orK, andi^^^^^^j^^^ Kitk-men. under Captain Tom. Mc- 
the L nion Company discontuiue<i. j p^^,_.^^^ uniformed in frin^W huntin.^ shirts. 

The American IIor<e In-^urance Com-|„tj^i armed whli Ijreccli-loading riries. In 
pany, (for securiiy against lo-s by death,! .^U2:ast, IS-i'J, the independent companies 
&C., of horses and other animals,! was or-l J-,. j.j^^^,^ a battalion and elected itervev 
ganized under the general law in Augu-'t,'j;j-^,^^n Lieutenant-Colonel, and Georire ^V. 
18(.'-3, with a nominal CL.pital of §100,000,1 p^m^^^ ;>^Xajor. Frequent parades and sev- 
Thomas B. McCivrty being elected presi-l^j.^j g^cam [Clients were held by the compa- 
dent, J. F. Payne, secretary, and has con-|„j,,^^ ^^^i ijie niilltarv feeling was active till 
linued its business to the present date, at ^^^^j. (j^^ ^[^^ „f i\^q Mexican war. Three 

companies of volunteers were raised li 
during that war, under Captains J. P. 
Drake, E. Lander and John McDougail. 

the oftice in V'inton'.s block on Pennsylvania 

The Franklin Mutual Life Insurance 
Company was organized under the general' For two or three years after that war no or- 
law in July, lSb*5, James M. Kay beingig-anization existed. In^ 18o2 the Citv 
elected pre-^ident, and D. W. firiilibs, secre-i»,Tuards were formed under command of 
tary, (since succeeded by E. P. llowe.i and (Governor Vv'aUace, and in May, 1853. the 
ha.s been very succe.ssf 1!, as all life cmipa-! Mechanic Bitles, but neither of these lived 
nies are that are carefully manacred. It has, long. 

done a good business and met with few lo=s-! fjie Saint Louis National Guards pa.^sed 
es, standing well among iuch entL-rpri-e-. ji,j.(,„n-h here in Februarv, I800, and the ef- 
The office was first opened at 19 Xorth Mc-if^,|-.t produced was such that a similar ortran- 
ridian street, but in April, 1808, the cfiai- jj^j^-irm ^vas efibcted here on the 12th of 
pany purchased the old Slate Bank hidld-i^^im-cji^ Xhe National Guards were uni- 
ing, at the corner of Illinois street and Ken-,f, in blue, with caps and white plumes, 
tucky avenue, and removed to that point. iji^d were succe-sivelv under the command 

Be^lde the foregring home organizations ^ of W. J. Elliott, Th('mas A.Morris. George 
agencies, general and special, exist here for F. Mc(Tinnis, Irvrin Harri.son, J. M. Lord, 
forty or fifty foreign life, accident and fire and \V. P. Noble. AViien the war occurred 
insurance "companic-s. Most prominent, the company entered the eleventh re;.'iment 
amon? these is the .Etna, of Hartford, and clo.-ed its existence with the end of the 
which, under William Henderson and A.' war. An unsuccessful eflbrt was afterward 
Abromet as agents, has done a very lucra-' made to revive it. It was a well-drilled 
five business at this point, its net recei^.tsand officered organization, held frcpient 
here during the continuance of the agencv,' parades and a number of encampments, and 
in excess of all expen=es, amounting to supplied many competent othceis to tiie 
nearly if not quite S2U0,00U. The companv army during the war. It revived the null- 


tary spirit here -when it -wa-; ;it tlie lowest their exi^tcnr'e ^Yith the cinl of the -war, be- ' 
ebb, and aided in kecpin;,' it alive until the ir.g commanded by "\V. J. II. llobinsun, F. i 
war dcJuuu.-tralCHi the abiohjte neces-ity of Knetler and otlier.-. 

?nch organization^ in time of peace. George A military convention wa.-; liehl here ' 
F. >rctiinni^, ^V. W. Darnell, J. II. Livj'cy Juno 27th, ISGO. under the leuder-iiip of : 
and others commau.U-d the company L'apiain Lewis Wallace, eleven companies 
thronccb the war. Shortly after it was lirit being represented, and an encampniea: was , 
formc-d the National Guards Land was or-' determined on, to be liold Si.'ptember 19th i 
ganized, and under dilierent names and|0n the State military gromids. It was ac- ^ 
Avith some chan.ges, still exists, Iiolding accordingly held September iyih-24th, the 
hish rank among the musical organizations, Greys, Guards, Zouaves, M(-<ntgninery j 
of the State. " j Guards, Fort Harrison Guards, aiv.l Vigo i 

Tlie Citv Greys and the City Greys BandGuards pariicipatin',', Gineral Love com- j 
were organized August I'Jtli, iS-^^T, and un-jmanding, Captain Slioup Adjutant. The 
der t]ie"pncces>ive conmiand of W.J. Fl!i-! unfavorable weather prevented a large at- i 
ott, E. Hartwoll and others, attained a high|tcndance. _ _ j 

state of di.-cipline. It was uniformed ini The Zouave Cadets were organized iu 
grav, wore bearskin shakos, and was armed! August, 1S60, and tlie Zouave Guards, Cap- 
fike the Guards with mu-kets. It entered|tain John Fahnestock, in October. This 
the eleventh regintent and closed its exist- company also entered the eleventli regi- 
ence -with the M-ar, being commanded by K.'mcnt, and terminated its existence at the 
S. Foster, S. W. Lutler'and Henry Kemper.|end of the war. The Cadets were in exLst- 
The Grevs Band in March, ISoO, durins;once for a year or two after the war began 
.1 - -n-i .■■/-n^.u iv._-.^. t^.rtcd for that Icccl 'under Certain Gccr-c H. M-'!, and 
itv, but turned otf toward Santa Fe, and| most of them entered the service singly a.s 
thJnoedovn throuu'h Mexico to Matamoras.lotncers in various regiments subsoipjently 
and through Texas tu New (Orleans andjov^nized. 

home, receiving a public weicome h:.-rei i he news of the attack on Suinter was re- 
June Vth, 1860^ after tlieir hfteen months. ceived April lith, and the next day ret-ruu- 
of wandering and hardship. The band en-iing began. The Guards, Grevs. .Zouaves, 
tered tlic -ervice, though ni.t as the old or-jand Zonave Ciunrds at once filled up, anu 
ganization. ' T'Vere all in camp by the ITth. Two reserve 

'The City Grevs Artillery was organized'companies of National Guards were tuimed. 
in 1S59 as an adjunct to that organization,' Two companies of the Greys entered the 
und-r J. A. Cole-^tock as captain, but ihe'service, leaving one reserve company at 
commander lost his arm not long after by a'home. Two companies of t!\e Inoepenucnt 
premature explosion of the gun, and thej Zouaves were in the eleventh regimcni. 
company was suspended. iThe Zonave Guards left no reserve coui- 

In Julv, ISo.S, the Marion Dragoons, 'pany. Besides these organmuions an artu- 
Captain John Love, ^vere organized', and ierv- company was formed, and Home (jnard 
for a year or two kept up their organization ompanie.s in every ward. Several tfious- 
and occa.-^i'.nal parades but the ditiicuitv ofjands of men were raised here for tiie .-ervice 
properly ckilling and keeping up a cavalryjduring the war, without counting tlie gal- 
company prevented their cunllnued exist- lant City Regiment, twelve hundred strong, 
pnce '^>'"b its artillery and cavalry wings, raised 

TheMont-.,meryG".ards visited the eitvihere during the iMorgan raid, or the one 
on the "Lt c^f February. lSt]0, and with ounthousand "hundred daysers" at a later d:ue 
city companies paraded on the 22d. In the in the struggle. The military record ot tae 
afternoon thev -ave a fancy drill by drum-lcity during the war was a proud one and 
beat in Zr.nave dress, near the Bates Ilousc.iher quitas were always hLed, althoti-li bs 
in presence of an immense crowd, and ex- the of the authorities in secunn- 
cited great admiration. It was at once de- the proper credits, a drait was oraercd eari> 
termined to form a Zouave company here,;in ISoo, and a debt of several hiindred 
and on the 1st of Mareh the Independent I thousand dollars mcurred lor 'counties o 
Zciiaves, Captain F. A. Shoup, were ortran-; volunteers to hll requu-iuons that =houia 
ized, unitormed as Zouave-,, armed with sa-inever have been iiiade ^ _ 

bre-bavonet riiles, and persistently drilled.] On the- 4th ol l.lruary, l.v... ( ah n 
Shoai,\e<i-ned in January, 18G1, went SMUth Fletcher and Thoma^ Jonnson ^^--^^ i'; 
and joined the rebel armV, in which he af- pointed comnus.-ioners bv the A.^tinin. to 
terward be-came a brii^adier general, and, receive subscriptions ami drain ^^ -^ j^"^P 
was noted as the first one on'that side tu north-easc ot town, which ^\'- ^l f ^i-^J "^ 
propose using the negroes as soldiers in the' waters by two bayotis \1'7":' . 'j'S .''^^^J- 
rebel cau-e The Independent Zouaves en- Thc-y procee.led to execute tl e Nvork b> cut 
tctd t ; e eventh regiment and terminated.ting a ditch west to Fall creek, south ot and 


through tlie prc~ent fair grounds. Durincrbnild the church on tlie north-west comer 
the I1^.„J of lilT the blinks of the drain'of University Squure, and a lea^e ivas ob- 
broke and the water a<:cain came down the tained from the Assembly ; but the house, a 
old channels, Hooding tlic houses and alarm- ^niall, phiin brick, was 'comnuncfd in the 
ing nev- comers. These bayou cliannels are tall on tlie south side of Ohio street, between 
now nearly obliterated by the street grades Penns\ Ivania and Meridian, and wa.s torn 
and filling of lots. On the 6th (jf February: down in 1S52 and a new church built in 
the Assembly authorized the Internal Im-:iS.33-4 on the south-west corner of New 
provcmcnt Board to use the half of square, York and Alabama streets. The (jerraan i 
50, which had been driven to the town for Lutheran church was built in l^i'O-l on 
market purposes in 1^21, and in lieu there-: East and Georgia streets, Eev. Charles 
of to set oti' the north half of square 48 toFreke, pa-tor. 

the town, the town and the J^tate to ex-j The Indianapolis Female Institute was 
change deeds on the transfer. On the 4th'chartered at the session of 1S3G-7, and 
of February the tirst carpenters' associationopened June 14tii by Misses Mary J. and 
was incorporated, and it shoitly after limit-; Harriet Axtell, in t^anders' building. It . 
ed a day's work to ten hours. ]was subsequently removed to the upper 

The Episcopalians had met occasionally' rooms of the house opposite Washington 
in 1S35 for woi-ship at the court house, as' Hull, and finally to a frame school-house on 
the services of a minister of that church; Pennsylvania street next the old Presbyter- 
could be secured, but in the winter of lS36;ian church. The first examinations were 
the mceungs had been more frequent, and held April oOth, 1S3.S, and the school sub- 
in ^Iiir:-!: cr April, 1S37, :: c/.r.rch m\.s ^i-,.~f4acuil_» iuiaineJ .t high icpuuul^ni, at- . 
ganized and Uev. James P.. P.ritton chosen tract in cr sch'.lars from abroad. Miss Axtell 
rector, preaching at the court house and' was a faithful and competent teacher, held 
semiiiary. Preparations were made for in grateful remembrance by her jiupils, but 
building in November, and on the 7th of her health failing the school was discontin- 
May, 1S3S, the corner-stone of Christ ued in the fall of 1S49, and .-he died at sea 
Church was laid, a plain wooden Gothic shortly after on her way to the West Indies, 
structure, on the north-east corner of Circle i The Indianapolis High School, afterwards 
and Meri'lian streets. The hou-e was open- called the Franklin Institute, was opened 
ed for Services November l.sth, L't'oS. This on AVashington street, opposite Washington 
building was used till 18-57. when it was Hall, October 25th, 1S37, by G. Marston 
sold to the African Methodist church and and Eliza Kichmond. A frame school- 
removed to West Georgia street. A new house wils built in tb.e spring of 1S38 on 
stone church (the first in the city) was be- Circle street next the present high school 
gun in May, 1857, and completed in 1859. building, and occupied by the school for 
The spire yet remauis unfinished. A peal four or five years. Marston left in 1S39, 
of bells wiis placed in it in May, ISGO, and being succeed'ed by Orlando Cliestt-r, who 
taken out and replaced with a better one in'dicd in October, 1S40, and was succeeded 
September, 18i3U. A ta>teful brick parson- by John Wheeler, who taught until the 
age was built near the church in 1S57. school was discontinued. In December, 
Kev. J. B. Britton, S.R.Johnson, M. ^1.1837, it was proposed to establish a S:ate 
Hunter, N. W. Camp, J. C. Talbott, H. Female Seminary as the counterpart of the 
Strin;':'c41ow, T. P. Ilolcunb. J. T. P. In-; Rlonminsrton College fir male=, aiid use the 
grah.-in have been rectors uf this church. IGovernor's Circle as the college building, 
In 1805 the church divided, a part of the but tlie project was not executed. The In- 
members formincr St. Paul's church, and in dianapolis Academy, under J.x=ephus Cicero 
thespringof 1867 tlie corner-stone of a large Wr.rral, had been in existence from 183G, 
brick edifice was laid at the corner of New. and continued for several years after this 
York and Illinois .-trects, with appropriate' date. Worral was a man_ of considerable 
services. Rev. H. Stringfellow has been'education but peculiar idiasyncracies, .and 
the rector to this date. This church hasihis addresses to his scholars i often publish- 
recentlv been completed and dedicated as^ed) excited much amu-^em.ent on account of 
the cathedral church of the dioci-se. Grace'the flights of fancy, classical allusions, and 
church, on Pennsvlvania and St. Joseph stilted style in which he indulged. 
streets, was built in 1803-4, M. V. Averill,' The first cflitorial convention in the State 
rector. Several mission chajK-ls of this de-'met May 29th in the town council chamber, 
nomination have since been built in difler-, twenty editors and publishers being present, 
ent quarters of the citv. 'John Douglass acted as pre.-Idcnt and Job;: 

The Evangelical Lutheran cluinh wa.s Howling secretary. Fifty-two papers were 
formed in tlie spring of 1837. and the first then publislied in the State. An associa- 
communion held May 14th, Rev. A. Reck^tion was formed, constitution adopted, and 
being pastor. It was at firot proposed to; advertising rates agreed on. 



As the National Government was McAd-March, and ro-^iiltcd in the election of J;i.s. 
nn-;i^ing the centre of Wnshin<:ton street, it: Morrisun as provident. In Ajiril and ^fay 

\va- pro{io?cd in June that tlie trustees im-|the council pa-;'.<l ordinances ;,'overnin;^' t!u 
prove the sidewalks, and steps were accord-^ niarkcts, regulaiin-,' cases Ijcfure the presi- 
ingly taken to do^ so. The sidewalks as dent, licensing groc-eries, and iuijirovin^' 
oriLrinally designed were tifteen icet wide sidewalks and streets. 

on Washington and ten feet on other streets.! The .summer and fall of 1>GS was yrry 
At a subsequent date they were made twen-isickly and many deaths took [)lace. The 
ty feet on Washington and twelve feet on 'first "steam foundry"' in the town was start- 
other etrcets ; nnd within tlie last ten yearsled in January by" Wood c'^: Undorhill, on 
lii'teen feet has been adopted as the standard ;Pennsyl\ania street, where the Second I'res- 
■wldth on the ninety-feet streets. Tlie iu-jhyterian cluirch new stands. The old 
creased width of the pavement on Washing- steam mill was finally closed in February 
ton street was bitterly o p d by the prop- i of this year and the machinery otiered fo'r 
erty-holders on account of tlie increased ex- sale, though not dispo-cd of finallv until a 
j)ense entailed in their imiwovement. The{year or two afterward. Benjamin Orr opened 
first street improvements were begun in; the first ready-made clothing store here 


A great hail storm occurred on tlie Ctli of 
June, many of the stones weighing three 
and four ounces, and rneasurin:^- three iiicli- 

during this vear. 

1S^;^I. 'pn the 13th of February ilie 
Assembly directed the State officers to buy 
!a resideiu^e tor the Governor, and eaily in 
es in length. Nearly all the windows in] tlie spring Dr. Sanders' two-story brick 
town were broken. The usual military andjdwelling, erected in the summer of 16;jG on 
school celebration occurrea o;i the iouithaiie n')nn-wet-t corner oi .MarKct and Illinois 
of July, the exercises closing with a milita-j.-ireeis, was purchased and used as the otH- 
ry reception, and ball at night in the Gov-lcial residence till ItiG-l. It was sold by or- 
ernor's Circle building. The Ladies' Mis- der of the As.^embly in 180-5, and a row of 
sionary Society held the first fair here onibusiness rooms built along the Illinois .-treet 
the 31st of December, realizing S2o0 for the' front of the lot. 

cause. Sucli fairs were afterward very fre-l Three liundred and twenty-four votes 
qucntly held by various societies and fori were cast at the corporation election in 
various objcct.s. March, N. E. Palmer being elected prcsi- 

1S3S. The Assembly re-incorporated dent. At the meeting in April the public 
the town on the 17th of February, includ-| wells v.ere ordered to be repaired, by-laws 
ing the whole of the donation, but limiting! adopted for the government of the town oiH- 
taxation for municipal purposes to the old jeers, and the streets which were .still fenced 
plat. The town was divided into six wards, uj) ordered to be opened. The corporation 
all cast of Alabama street coiK-cituting the: receipts for the year ending March "7th 
first; thence west to Pennsylvania the sec- were S7,012, the expenditures S6, 874 ; $o,- 
ond ; thence to Meridian the third ; thence 8-50 of this sum was paid Elder, C'olestock 

to Illinois the fourth ; thence to Mississippi 
the fifth ; thence west the sixth. One trus- 
tee was to be elected by eucli ward, and a 
president by the whole town. Thev werej 

Ot Co., for building the west market Jiouse 
and adding to the east one ; S443 were pair 
M. Shea, sexton, for clearing and fencim 
the old graveyard ; $58 for printing, am. 

to be freeholders, hold office one year, and 18140 for street inprovements and gravel, 
constitute the common council, the prosi-j The first revision of the town ordinances 
dent and four members being a quorum, was made and published in July. In No- 
The president had a ju-tice's juri.-^diciion, vember S300 were ap]jroprIated to buy a 
was to enforce ail ordinances, and keep a 'new engine; a comnrittec was appointed to 
docket. The marshal had a constable's au-|sce if it could be bought for SGOo, and dona- 
thority and wtis to keep the peace. Tliejtion? solicited for the purpose, 
council met mondily, the members etich re-i An accurate survey of the dorialion tin- 
ceiving twelve dollars per annum. Theylyear sliowed a mistake in the original sur- 
had all nece.-sary powers, to pass ordinances,! vey by which the title to eiglit acres, whieh 
levy taxe?, (not over one-half per cent, onjhad been laid of!' in lot.s and sold in l^'-p, 
real property) improve streeus, borrow mon-'v,-as .still in the general government.^ liie 
ey, tax shows, saloons and groceries, regu-| Assembly memorialized Congress in lebru- 
late markefs, guard against 'fires, tS:c. The: ary, 1840, stating the mistake and a-king 
a--^^e^3ment was to be made annually ly'a donation of the eight acres. 'IhL; wa.s 
June 1st, and collected by September granted and the lille quieted. 
Tlie council was to elect a secretary, treas-j 'pijp f.pgt municipal tax sale took place 
urer, collector, marshal, supervisor, niarket|Q(.j^i^(,j. 'Jolh at Wa.-hington Ilal'^by Janus 
master, lister and assessor. The election; \'..i;, 15i;iPiL-ina maivhai and collector. A 
ui'.der this act was lield the last Saturday in^^.jj,,,,[,j,.i-able number of sales were fubsc- 



ouentlv made, but the reconis have since' The first ci.stern.'^, two in number, of tiiree 
Iveen lost. hundred barrels e.ich, were ordered to be 

In November Mrs. Britton openoil a fe-jeonstrueted in the spring ol thi.s year, 
male seminary near the foundry. This! The political excitement inrrea,-cd in in- 
school — afterward known when under the tensity a.s the elections approached, bo:h 
care of Mrs. Johnson as tlie " St. Marys, parties lujlding monster conventions. A 
Seminarv" — was subsequently removed to a very larire convention was held at Tippeca- 
building' adjoininij the Einscnpal church, noe about the la.-t of May, many persons at- 
and for many yean< was quite prosperous, i tending from this plac-e. A preac Whig 

The first Thanksiriving proclamation was' convention was also held here on the oth of 
issued on the 4th of November by (rovernor I October, and on the 14th of October the 
AVallace, the day fixed on being the 2Sth. | Democrats held a great meeting in the wal- 

The Presbvterian churcii having divided^mit grove north of the Blind Asylum to 
in May, ]S:S8, on the slavery and otherj welcome Kichard M. Johnson, Vice Presi- 
que^tions, the church here was also divided,; dent and reputed slayer of Tecumseh. lie 
fifteen of the members forming the Second; was received with due honors and addresseil 
church November lUtli. 1838, under Kev.jthe convention. Colonel Johnson visite<i 
J. 11. Johi-ison. One or two calls were ex-lthe town once or twice afterward on privale 
tended to pastors but declined, and in May, j business. One thousand three hundred and 

eighty -seven votes were cast in the township 
at the November election, Harrison receiv- 
ing eight hundred and seventy-two, Van 
Buren five hundred and fifteen. 

The Indiana Ilorticidtunil Society was 
formed August '2'2d and continued active 
ncr of .Market and Circle Greets, and occu-ioperations for several years, Henry Ward 
pied bv the congre-^atinn October 4th, 1840.!Beecher and James Blake being among its 
.Mr. Bcechcr remained till September 19th, 'most prominent supporters. 
HIT, and was succvL-ded In- Kcv. Clement 

lS:;',t, Kev. II. ^V. Bcecher, then of Law- 
rencebnrgh, was called, and began his min- 
istrations July ol-t. The congregation wor- 
'--hiped in tlie seminary. In 1839-40 a 
frame church (the present high school 
buiidin'jL) was erected at the nnrth-we-i cor 

F.. BabI) in Julv. 181s, who remained till 
J.ii;!i:'.ry I-t, 18-'):;. B'V. T. A. Mills was 
nalleil as pastor Januaiy 1st, 1854, remain 

The annual Methodist conference met 
here October •21st. Bishop Soule presiding. 
1841. In March, James "Wood, civil 

ii!g till February 9th, 1857. Rev. G. PJengineer, made a profile of the streets by 
Tii;l:'.!l b' pa-tor in August, 1857, and'direction of the council to establish a uni- 
I!ev. 11. X. Ivlson in November, 1S63. In: form system of grades, to be followed in 
Nov!.nd)cr. 1^51, twenty-four of the mem-itheir future improvement. The profiile was 
bcrs ibrmeil the Fourth Presbyterian! fded -with the a'.ithoritics, adopted by the 
Cnurch, and crc-cted a brick church inicouncil April Sth, 1842, and has been fol- 
1853-1 on Delaware and Market streets.jlowed in nearly all the subsequent improve- 
In the s'pring of 18')4 a new stone church, I ments. The survey and profile cost S30:'>. 
r:ot yet fully completed, was begun on Ver-I On the 10th of April a meeting was held 
r;K'nt and Penn-ylvania streets, and is nowjto make arrangements for funeral services 
J,' -rly completed at a cost of about S100,-!for President Harrison. The exercLses took 
K'fl It is tlte finest cliurch building in theiplace on the 17th, Gover.\or Biirser and 
(iiv. 'I iie chapel was oc<-upied December. Henry Ward Beecher delivering: addresses. 
2'!, l>fjr. The Fiftli Pnsbytorian church Ba.-iness was suspended during the day, and 
is a Culi;ny from the Second, and theirithc funeral procession was imposing. T!;e 
i-bu-ch was dedicatwl May loth, 1864.1 14th of May was observed throughout the 
Tr:.' Olivet church is ai-o a colonv, dedicat-lcountrv as a day for the death ot the 
In- their church O-tobcr 20th, 1807. The! President. 

o'li frarue chtirch was sold to the city for a| 1842. By the treasurer's report in 
liigh school buihiing in the spring of 1807,' March the corporation receipts lor the pa.-t 
an'.l v.-as last used as a church July 16th, lyear amounted to S3,197, expenditures .r2,- 
5807. i'.'57 ; SI, 138 had been expended for street 

1840. Much political excitement oc-i improvements and 8707 for salaries. The 
ciirred this year, and the Whigs carried the'coimty receipts from March 1st, 1841, to 
luunicipai election in Marcli for the firstj June" 1st, 1842, were $9,942, expenditures 
time, electing the tru-tees and town officers. 'S8, 194. The salaries of the town officers 
The corporation refeij)ts for the year 1839ifor 1842 were as follows : Secretary S200, 
.'i;iio;mted to S5,975, the expenditures to! treasurer SlOO, m.arshal SlOO. supervisor 
?1,753 ; SI,9S4 of this sum M'ere .spent on!S200, collector S200, assessor S75, market 
the market' hovi.-es, Sl.ooO on street.s andima-ster S140, messenger of fire company 
b-idires, §197 on the fire department, S974 SlOO. An etlbrt was made in the fall to r'> 
for Sidaries, and S244 for incidentaLs. ipeal the act of incorporation on account of 



the expenses attending the muiucipul gov-|Ledslauire to the condition of the insane, 
ernment. ulind, and de:if and dumb i)cry(in.s in tiie 

On the 25th of A]iril at two o'clock A.M., State, su::;;estintr stejis for their edn.-ation 
the town vv-;i.s startled by a heavy oxiilf.-inn.and maintenance ; and as earlv as Jann;>rv 
and iin exiimination it was found tiiat tlie I s3i>, the Assembly hati memorialized Con- 
grocery of Frederick Smith, a (uie-storyieress askin? a pnint for that object, and on 
frame house, where 03 East Washinirtonitlie loth of Febnuirv. 18:!9, the assos.sors 
street now is, had bc-en blown up with; were directed to ascertain and retxirt the 
powder, and further search revealed thej number of deaf mutes in eucli countv. The 
body of Smith badly burned and ^s•ounded.j Governor was directed, Januarv Sl'st, LS42 
He liad atteinpted suicide duriiiK temporary to correspond with the Governors of other 
insanity, sitting on the keg of powder aii<l States coticernin? the cost, constrnctiun and 
applying the match. jmanngement of Insane Hospitals. Dr. .John 

The first daguerrcdiype saloon here wasi Evans delivered a lecture December 20t!i, 
opened by T. AV. Whiirid-e in July or Au-;ls42, before the Assembly on tb.e treatment 
gurft. I)uring the fall James Elake erected I of insanity, and on the ICth of Februarv, 
a mill and furnaces ainl- attempted the man-ilS43, the Governor was directed to corrci- 
nfacture of syrup and sugar from corn-j pond with superintendents of ho-pitals and 
?talks. ^ procure plans to be submitted with his sug- 

This year was di-^tincnii-hed by the visitslgestions at the next ses^^ion. Thi^ was done, 
of two Presidential ciiiclidates. Van Eureniand a tax of one cent on the hundred dol- 
and Clay. Mr. Van Puren arrived byjlars was levied January 15th, 1S44, for hos- 
stage on Saturday, the 11th of June, being|pital buildings. On tlie loth of Jan.. 1S45, 
received e;u?t of tov/n by a proces.sion com-! John Evans, Livingston Dunlap and Jame.'< 
posed of citizens, firemen, and four military: Blake were appointed commissioners to se- 
companies, and was escorted with due hon-jlect a site of not more than two hundred 
ors to the Palmer House, where he made a 'acres. They chose the present site in the 
speech in repl\- to the wek^jming address. ^spring of 1S45, and reported it, with a plan 
He visited Governor Bigger at the State'of the building, at the following session, 
house, and held a reception in the evening.! On the li'th of January, 1S4'), they were 
On Sunday he attended the Methodi-t and ordered to begin the iiospital accordincr to 
Second Presbyterian churches, and left on, the plan on the site, and sell hospital square 
Monday by stage for Terrc Haute, being'22, its proceeds, with Slo.OOO in addition, 
upset near Plaintield while t'ji. ro'f'tf. Henry i being appropriated to the building. The 
Clay arrived October 5tii, attending a Whig' central portion of the hospital v.-as becrun in 
convention in response to an invitation of the summer of 1S4G and finished in ls47, at 
the party. The cruwd on that occasion was! a cost of about S75,000. The south wing 
generally estimated at thirty thousand, and | was built in 1853-4, and the north witig 
considering the facilities for travel, then! -everal years afterward. Various additions, 
and since, it has never since been eqtialed.jchanees and repairs have also been made, 
The procession included many bands, many 'and the house as tinaliy completed lia= cost 
military companies, representatives of all; nearly if not quite S5'J<J.0u0. and is among 
trades and pirofessions, and was nearly two' the largest buildings in the West. It is sit- 
hours passing a given jioint. It proceeded iuated on a quarter-section of land two miles 
to a grove north of <-iovernor Noble's house,; west of the city, is from three to five -tories 
where a £rreat barbecue was spread for the in bight, with a basement, and is about five 
a.ssembled thousands. Mr. Clay spoke for; hundred feet in length. It was first ojx-ned 
two liours after dinner, and was followed by for the reception of patients in 1^47, and 
Governor Crittenden, (rovernor ^Metcalf and I has ever since been fully occupied. Dr. 
other AVhig leaders. The festivities lasted !, John Evans was its originator and tirst su- 
tliree days, and included a grand military: perintendent. He resigned July 1st, 1S4S. 
parade, and review by the Governor, a tineill. J. Patterson, .1. S. Athon, J. H. Woixl- 
exhibition of fireworks and an agricultural burn and W. J. Lockhart have since been 
fair. I the successive superintendents of the in.^ti- 

During this and several following years itution. 
an excitement about me-merisni spread! The first stepts having been taken to pro- 
through the West. Lecturers went from vide for the insane, the Assembly, on the 
point to pxjint explaining the new science to! 13th of February, 1S43, levied a two-mill 
the natives and giving experiments in illus- tax to support the deaf mutes and build 
tratiun. Many amu-lng -cenes occurred in them an asylum. William Wiliard, a mute 
the trials made on tlie "subjects'' by com- 1 teacher from Oliio, arrived nere in the 
mittees ap{X)inted by the audiences. !spring of 1843 and openetl a private school 

1 843. Physicians and philanihropi-ts iqi- niutes on the 1st of October, having six- 
had repeatedly called the attention of theiteeu pupils during the first year. This 



school was ad(iptcd by tha State on the loth S5.000 beinir appropriated for a site, furni- 
of January, 1S44, and the Govt-rnor, Troas- lure, Oct. Mr. Fletcher declinincf to serve 
urer and :recretarv of State, with Henry; Set on W. Norri« was appointed trnstee! 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gnrley, P. II. Two blocks on North street were pHrcha-ed 
Jamison, L. Dunlap, James Morrison and for a site, a plan selected and the bnildins/ 
Matthew Simpson appointed trustees, with'comnienced. The school was opcne<i Octo- 
instruetions to rent a room and employber 1st, 1S47, in the buildiiu^ on the south- 
teachers. They rented the liouse on tlie'wcst corner of Illinois and Marvland streets 
soutli-west corner of Illinois and Maryland by Mr. W. 11. Churelmian, who had been 
streets, and opened the scliool there Octoberlappointed superintendent. Nine pupils 
1st, 1S44. The Governor was also to receive were in attenrlance on the 4tli. and thirty 
proposals for site, t^-c. The Governor was during the session. In September, 1848 
authorized on the 15th of January, 1845, to! the sdiool was removed to a three-story 
appoint five trustees in place of the former i brick building erected on the grounds and 
board, lie did so, and in the fall of 1 84(5 i afterward used as a workshop. The asvlum 
the new board rented the Kinder buildingiwas commenced the same year and finished, 
on East "Wasiiington street and removed the with some changes of plan and detail-, in 
school there, where it remained until the; 1.^51. at a cost of SG0,O0'J, and the pupils 
completion of the Asylum in October, ISoO.iand school at once removed to it. Tiie sur- 
The institution was permanently locatcd'rounding grounds have since been tastefullv 
here January 9th, 1846, the trustees being! laid out "and planted with trees and shrub- 
directed to buy thirty acres near the city,!bery. "\V. II. Chun^hman, G. W. Ames, 
$3,000 being ajipropriated therefor. TheyjW." C. Larrabee and James McWorkman 
were subsequently directed to buy one hun- have been superintendents of tl:e institution, 
dred acn s in add"ition to instruct the pupilsj The asylums are creditable to the city 
in agriculture. The site was bought east ofiand State, not only for extent, manatrement 
the city in the summer of l.S4b and the'and arrangement," but also that thev were 
building begun in 1849 and finished by Oc-jl)uilt when the State was heavily in debt 
tober, ] 850, at a cost of about SoO.OOO. It'and the people unprepared for the extra 
was rough-casted and completed in 1853.jtaxation necessary for their supj-ort. 
On its completion the school was removedj In February, 1843, a fire damacred the 
there and has been prosjx-rously managed I Washinsrt on llall to the extent of s3,000, 
ever since. Many mutes have received land seriously threatened its e;Uire destruc- 
their entire education there and been fitted! tion. The weather was exce.-sively cold, 
for active ■bu-iness pursuits. Prior to 184SI the water freezing as it fell, and the house 
pupils who were able were required to payiwa-s saved after several hours' hard work by 
tuition and board, but since then the eduea-the engine companies, aided by !nmdre<]s of 
tion and maintenance of all have been free. 'citizens in passing buckets. 
William Willard was the originator and! The Millerite delusion, which had some 
first teacher of the school. James S. Brown 'of the citizens among its adherents, created 
Avas the- first superintendent from 1845 to'some excitement during the winter and 
October, 1852, and since that date Dr.|-pring. The belief in the approaching end 
Thomas Mclntyre has been in charge oflof all things was strengthened by an earth- 
the institution. jquake on the 4th of Januar^- between ei^ht 

The insane and the deaf mutes being thus'and nine o'ch>ck, lasting nearly a minute 
provided for, the blind were still neglected ;;and sensibly shaking the buikiings. It wa.'< 
but during tliL' session of 1844-5 pupils from'also encouraged by the great comet which 
the Kentucky Institution gave an exhibi-' nightly flamed in the south-west during 
tion before tiie Assembly with such success! Feljruary and ]\Iarch, its train reaching 
that a two-mill tax was "at once ordere<l for' across the sky like a destroying sword, 
the support and education of the blind.iThe weather however wa.s adverse, being 
James M. Ray, George W. Mears, and the cold and stormy during March and April, 
Secretary, Tr'easurer and Auditor of State|with deep and drifting snows, followed in 
were ap'pointed commissioners at the next! May by heavy rains, filling tlie streams, 
session to expend the fund thus created inswc'eping off bridges, breaking the canaL«, 
starting a school or maintaining pupils atjand raisin? White river over the bottoms. 
the Ohio or Kontuckv institutions. Theyj The 2'Jd of February and the 4th of July 
appointed William IL Churchman as lee-! were celebrated by the military, four com- 
turer to present the case to the peojile andi panics participating, and the last anniver- 
to ascertain the number of blind in the!sarv by the schools in the usual style. In 
State. On the 27th of Januarv. 1S47, G. the month of June R. Parmlee begtm mak- 
W. Mears, J. M. Ray and Calvm Fletcher.jing pianos here, and contimied the business 
were apfK)inted comniL-^sioners to erect asy-jtwo or three years. In Novenil>er^ " The 
lum buildings and arrange for a school,! New York Company of Comedians" gave 



a series of concerts in Gaston's carriage shop' 
on Washington west of Illinois street, each 
concert being succeeded by a theatrical rep-' 
rescntation. John and ^iary rowell, Sam. 
Lathrop, Mr. "Wallace, Turn. Townley and: 
others were llic actors. The C')nipany liad 
considerable merit and attracted crood audi- 
ences. During the season, which lasted fori 
ten weeks, the noted tragedian, Augustus A.! 
Adnms, Mrs. Alexander Drake and Mr.j 
Morris were the stars. This company was' 
the third whi(.-h performed here, Lind-' 
say's company having performed several' 
vcars before, and ^Ir. and Mrs. Smith in' 
1823-4. _ _ I 

The Indianapolis Female Collegiate In-' 
stitute, Miss Lcsuer, principal, began ini 
September in the Franklin Institute on Cir-[ 
cic street, and continued two or three years. 
The Roberts Chapel Methodist cluirch was 
built during this and the following year at' 
a cost of eight or ten thousand dollars, on| 
the corner of ]\[arket and Pennsylvania' 
streets, under J. S. Bayless, the fn~t pastor.! 
The congregation worsiiiped in the court: 
house until the completion of the church. i 
The present lot and buihlLne were sold in' 
June, 1868, and steps are being taken toj 
erect a larger and finer edifice at a cost ofj 
about $.80,000, on the north-west corner ofl 
Vermont am! Delaware streets. 

184 4. The Union Cemeter}- was laid 
out in April adjoining the old burying' 
ground. In 185'i Messrs. Kay, Peck and: 
Blake, laid out the ground north and east ofj 
this cemetery for burial purposes, and ini 
1860 the Grecnlawn Cemetery, west of the! ground and next tlie river and 
Terre Haute railroad, was added. 

A meeting was held on the oth of August! 
to make arrangements for the contemplated; 
visit of Lewis Cas.s. He came on the 25tli 
and wa.s received witii due honors and con-: 
ducted to the State military grounds, where' 
a welcoming address was made by Governor] 
Whit comb, and a long speech made by Gen- 
eral Cass in response. He was followed by! 
Senator Hannegan and others. The pro-! 
ces.sion and audience was large and enthusi-! 
a.stic. A re>'e[ition was held for several 
hours at the Palmer House, and lie left at 
six in the evening for Dayton. 

18 4 5. Thf^ Thespian Society, com|X)sed 
of young men of the town, gave a series of 
dramatic performances during July, August 
and Septemlxr. They also performed dur- 
ing September and Octolier of the following 
year. S<;veral of the performers evinced 
decided talent for the stage, and their etlbrts 
attracted good audiences. 

The usual celebrations occurred on the. 
Fourth of July, but the day was signalized 1 
by a riot, resulting in the murder of John 
Tucker, a negro, on Illinois street opposite 

the present site of the Bates House. Bal- 
lenger, the principal in the aliray, made his 
escape. Nic-k Woods was sent to the peni- 
tentiary, and the others were acquitted. 

"Wasliini'ton street was grad^'d and grav- 
eled in Jidy. In Au?u.-c and September 
Seton W. Norris built the present Hubbard 
block, then the best business hoase in tlie 

On the 16th of August John II. Ohr, 
Daniel B. Culley and I)avid K. Elder, ap- 
prentices in the Journal ofiice, is.-ued the 
tirst number of the Locoinotiue, and contin- 
ued its publication weekly for three montli.s. 
It was revived by them April od, 1847, and 
again issued lor three months. Its size was 
seven by ten inches, and each three months' 
issue formed a volume. Douglass ^t Elder 
revived it January 1st, 1848, and issued it 
weekly from an ofiice on South Meridian 
street'in Ilulibard's block, till July, 18G1, 
when its publication was suspended and its 
subscription list transferred to the Sentinel. 
Its size when tirst issued by them wa,s eight 
by thirteen inches, and after several en- 
largements it was finally published on a 
sheet twenty -three by thirty -one inches. 
Elder & Harkness lx;came proprietors 
March 30th, 18o0, and continued .such till 
its suspension. For a number of years it 
had the greatest circulation in the county, 
and published the letter-list. It was neutral 
in politics, and devoted to literary and news 

The old Methodist church, erected in 
182S-9 on Meridian and Circle street.s, hav- 
ing become unsafe from the cracking of the 
walls, was torn down and Wesley Chapel 
erected in this and the following year on its 
site. It has since been in constant use by 
Wesley Chapel charge, but will probably be 
sold this year and a finer and larger edifice 
will be built on the south-west corner of 
Meridian and New York streets. 

1 8 4 G . The corporation receipt.s for the 
year ending March 31, amounted to .82,- 
636. This had all been expended and a 
debt of $370 contracted. This debt caused 
some uneasiness to the citizens. 

The Mexican war began early hi April, 
and the news was received here early in 
]May. The Governor's proclamation call- 
ing for voluntee.-^ appeared May 23d. Re- 
cruiting at once began and a company was 
lormed in June under captain J. P. Drake, 
and lieutenants John A. McDougull and 
Lewis Wallace, and marched to the rendez- 
vous at New Albany. This company was 
attached to the first Indiana regiment under 
colonel Drake, and spent the year of its 
enli.-tment guarding stores in Matamoras. 
Two additional companies, under captains 
Edward Lnnder and John A. McDougall, 
were raided in May and September, 1847, 



and attached to tlie fourth and fit'th resi-'weeks the work was actively and effoctivelv 
mciit.s. A number ot' recruits were also; prosecuted. 

secured here for tlie regular army. Butj The A'^sembiy on the 13th ot' Fohruarv, 
Iktle excitement existed here in reo-ard to'lB47. granted the town a ciiy cliarter, its 
this war, and it was generally viewed from 'acceptance or rejection to ho decided by a 
a party stand point. jvote of the citizens on the :27th of March, 

The ^ladison railroad depot was locatcdand in case of itri acceptance the Governor 
this summer on the liiph ground south of was to proclaim the fact and that it had 
Pogue's run, nearly half a mile from thebecome a law. The donation cast of the 
settled portion of the town. The locationjriver was included in the corporation, and 
caused much dissatisfaction, and the com-iwas divided in seven wards. Washington 
pany was strongly urged to build its depot street was the boundary between the north 
on Maryland street ; but, the location hav-'and south wards. All east of Alabama and 
ina been finally determined on, the coun-inorth of Wasliington was the first; thence 
ci! ordered the impirovement of Pennsylva-lwest to Meridian the second; thence to 
nia and I'elaware streets across the lowjMissispippi the third; thence west, fourth ; 
valley of the run, and the creek bed was'all •west of Illinois and .«outh (>f ^V'ashing- 
straightened from Virginia avenue to Meri-jton, tiftli ; thence east to I\-!aware, sixth; 
dian street by the property holders. [thence all east the seventh. Tlie first city 

The citizens liecame provoked during the'eiection was to take place April 24th. The 
summer at the bold operations of the gam- j Mayor was to serve two years, had a jus- 
blei-s. Meetings were held, a committee of[tice's jurisdiction and the veto power. One 
fifteen appointed, resolutions to abiate thelcouncilman was to be elected from each 
nuisance adopted, and Hiram Erown, the; ward at S24 annual salary and serve one 
oldest member of the bar, retained to pros-'year. The council was to elect one of their 
ecute the offenders. Vigorous measures! number president, hold monthly meetings. 
were taken, and repeated in December, jtwo-thirds being a quorum. They had full 
1847, and the gamblers compelled to leave power to piiss ordinance^, levy taxes, estab- 
the town. Much feeling was arousci by lis'i dLstrict schools and levy t;cxes therefor, 
these measures and the fifteen were de-grade streets, suppress nuisances, c^x., and 
nounced as a vigilance committee, but the were to elect a secretary, trea.-urer, assessor, 
desired object was attained and the town] marshal, (who was to have a constable's 
rid of the presence of many bad characters.jau'.hority,) street commissioner, attorney, 

land such other othcers as might be needed. 

1847. Heavy and continued rains.jTaxation for general purpo>es was limited 
amounting to twelve inches in forty-ci^ht'to fifteen cents on the SlOO. but could be 
hours, liad fallen over the .State during tiie;increase(i if sjiecially authorizcil by vote of 
last days of December, 184t.'), producing byjtb.e people. At the election for city officers 
the first of January the greatest Hood in in April a vote was also to be taken on the 
"White river and its triljutaries since 1S24. question of tax for free schools. 
The wliole valley was flooded, wa.shing otfl Joseph A. Levy, the last president of the 
soil, cattle, hogs, fences, hay, and causing iniold town council, is.sued a prociaiiuuion di- 
various ways so much damtige that the As-;recting an election to be held in tlie six 
sembly authorized a deduction of taxes for, wards of the town on the 27th of March, 
the year to parties residing on the streams, to determine the acceptance or rejection of 
The swanap north-east of town becoming the new charter. The election resulted in 
full, the banks of the drain broke flooding:449 votes for to 19 against it. This vote 
the two bayous, and causing loss and incon-'was certitied to Governor Whitcomb on the 
venience to parties who had built alongi29th, and on the 30th he proclaimed the 
them. West Indianapolis was covered, anri adoption of the cliarter and that it had bc- 
the National road and canal badly injured, come a law. Joseph A. Levy, president^ of 
The ac»pieduct bv which the canal crossed the old c<nuicil, then issued a proclamation 
Fall creek was broken, and not repaired tiirdirectin? an election, on the 24ih of April, 
late in the fall, the mills meanwhile lyingin the seven wards of the city, for mayor 
idle. This flood was almost efiualled f)y;and councilmen. and also to decide whether 
another in November. ''i t'*x should be levied tor free schools. The 

The 22d of Felrruarv wa.s celebrated bv'election was held and the tax almost unan- 

the meclianics with a procession, speeches, 
diimer. Sec. A meetin? was held on the 

imously authorized^ Samuel Henderson 
was elected the first mayor, and the follow- 

2oth of February to take measures for the'ing persons from the several wanLs the first 


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6fth, Abram "W. Ilarrison the sixth, "Wil- 
liam L. "W'ingatc the seventh. The new 
council was organized May 1st, and elected 
Samuel S. Kookcr president, and James G. 
Jordan sec'ry, at a salary of .5100; Nathan 
Lister, treasurer, at SoO ; James "Wood, 
engineer, at SoUO; William Campbell, col- 
lector, with per cent, compensation; Wil- 
liam Campbell, marshall, at S150 and fees; 

A. M. Carnahan, attorney, with fees; Jacob 

B. Fitler, street commissioner, at $100 ; 
Davitl Cox and Jacob JB. Fitler, messengers 
of the fire companies, at 825 each ; Sanjp- 
son Earbc-e and Jacob Miller, clerks of the 
markets, at $50 ; Joshua Black, assessor ; 
and Benjamin F. Lobaugh, sexton. [The 
city ofllcers, from 1847 to the jiresent time, 
are named on pages 47 and 4S.] The tax 
duplicate I'or 184G-7 amounted to$4,22G, and 
S8t)5 of this sum were delini|ueiicit s from for- 
mer years. Though there was little nnjuey 
in the treasuj-y the council at once began to 
improve tlie streets, and it was waggishly 
suggested that they employ a squad to tramp 
down the dog-fennel and thus give the place 
a business appearance. 

Little had been done by the old trustees 
and councilmen in tlie way of street im- 
provements, beyond filling mud lioles, cut- 
ting drains or grubbing stumps, and though 
James Wood had been employed to make 
a street protile in March, 1841, which had 
been adopted in April, 1842, and followed 
in the subsequent improvements, and con- 
siderable sums expended, no permanent re- 
sults had been achieved. The street profile 
was re-adupted by the new city council 
June 21, 1S47, and a new systeni com- 
menced, begiiuiing at the centre of tlic city 
and extending gradually outward. I'rop- 
erty holders were required to bear the ex- 
pense of grading and gravelling in front of 
their lots, and the city finished the cross- 
ings. The first buuldering was done in 
May, 1S50, by Looker and Lefevre, on 
Wasaingt(jn between Illinois and Meridian 
streets, and by the summer of 1860 it was: 
completed from Mississippi to Alabama 
streets, and from thence it has been extend- 
ed east and west and north and south. 
Nearly all the present street improvements, 
culverts and bridi^es, have been com])lcted 
in the last twelve years. 

The free school tax liaving been author- 
ized by a large majority, at the election held 
-^pril 24, 1847, the council levied it and 
made arrangements for the schools. Each 
ward was made a district under the super- 
vision of a trustee. Houses were rented 
and teachers employed, the schools being 
frt^ only fur one quarter each year under 
the State law. Donations of lots and money 
Were asked, and the thanks of the council 
extended, in December, 1S47, to Thomas 

D. Gregg, for a gift of $100. Lots were 
purchased at I'rom SoOO to $500 In the seven 
wards in 184S-'J, and in 1851-2 plain, cheap, 
one story brick structures, so planneil that 
additional stories could afterward be added, 
were built in five of the wards. Those in 
the second, fourth and sixth wards, Iiad two 
rooms each, and in the others but one room 
each. A second story was added to the 
first, second and fifth ward liouses in 1S-54-G, 
and all except the old seventh ward lumse 
have since been enlarged or raised. A good 
two story house was built in the eastern 
part of the seventh (now in the eighth,) 
ward in 1857, and it was raised an addition- 
al story in 1865. Lots were bought in the 
fourtli and present ninth wards in 1S57, and 
in 1S65-6 large, well finished, three story 
buildings, with basetnents, were erected on 
them at a cost of about $32,000 each. Oiht-r 
lots have been purchased for sites, and in 
view of the future extension of the city be- 
yond the donation it would be good pulley 
to secure sites for future liou.-es on or beyond 
the present boundaries of the city. In 
1867-S a large, fotir story building, with 
basement, was erected in the south part of 
the sixth ward and will cost, whun fully 
completed, about $43,000. It is at present 
the largest and finest school building in the 
city. The houses recently built are well 
designed, well finished, and liave far more 
architectural jiretensions than the earlier 
ones. Additional buildings are still needed 
as tlie sclu/ols from the start have been 
much cramped for room. 

The first tax lew, in 1847, produced $1,- 
981; that of 1848, $2,385; that of 1849, 
82,851. In 1850 tlie fund amounted to 
$6,160, $5,938 of which sum was spent that 
year and the beginning of the next for lots 
and buildings. The tax produced a larger 
sum each year with the increased growth of 
the chy, and in 1857 yielded $20,329. At 
first the entire amount was expended for 
buildings, the teachers being paid by tuition 
lees, but after the first houses were fini.-hed 
the annual return was mostly expended in 
salaries, the schools being kept open longer, 
more teachers employed and better salaries 

In 1847 the several wards were constitut- 
ed independent districts, each under the 
supervision of a trustee, and schools were 
oiiened in the fall of that year or spring of 
1848, in rented houses. This continued till 
.January, 1853, when tlie council elected 
Henry"?. Coburn, Calvin Fletcher and 
Henry F. We=t, a board cf trustees under 
the new law, giving them the sole control 
and management of the city schools. A 
code of rules wa.s drawn up by Calvin 
Fletclier, arranjrements made, and on the 
25th of April the free schools were opened 


- I 



for the first time, two male and twelve fe- daily attendance. The schools were gradc<l 
male teacher?' being employed. Until that a.s primary, secondary, iiitermcdiate,\ram- 
date the number of pupils had averaged mar and hicrh schools. The svstem w.^s 
only 310, but by the first of May the atten- working prosperously and a brildit career 
dance rose to 7U0, and over l,UOu out of the seemed'cen.iinly before it when the supreme 
2,600 children in the city were enrolled. 'court decision on the tax quc-tion in Janu- 
Until the election of this board of tru.-tees ary, lSo8, .'Struck a fatal blow at the whole 
the schools had been conducted indepen-, fabric. Tiie city council was immediately 
dently, M-ifhout a common system, texttconvened to consider the question. It called 
books or course of study. At the request 'raeeting:s of citizens in the several wards to 
of the trustees the principals of the leading devise measures bv which tlie schools could 
private schools prepared a list of text book's be continued. The meetings were held 
and a course of instruction which was adopt-' January 2'Jth, and 1,100 scholarships were 
ed and sub-equently followed. In August 'subscribed amounting to S3, 000, and it wa.s 
tlie graded system was adopted, and thelresolved to sustain the free system for the 
high scliool, for more advanced pupils, w;i5 current quarter, and as a pav" svstem after- 
opened September 1st, by E. P. Cole, with; ward. The schools were closed, however, 
one assistant, in the old county seminary,; at the end of the quarter, the superinten- 
which had been repaired and reiitted for, dent and teachers lelt for other points, and 
the purpose. From this date to February, > the houses remained vacant or used ocea- 
1855, the system was under the sole super-sionally tor private schools for a year or two 
vision of tlie trustees, who served withoutjafterward. 

compensation and almost without thanks,! No free schools were opened in 1S59. A 
to tlic detriment of their private interests, |small tax was levied for the repairs of 
but they persevered in the work, overcame' houses and furniture, and I'rom the State 
all oltetacles, and at last interested the peo-^fund free terms of eighteen weeks each were 
pie in the enterprise. The work, however,4ield in iJ-GO and 1861. Tlie svstem was 
proved too grea.t, and at their request llie:reorgani7.ed under the law of 1862, and a 
council in February, 1855, elected Sila-s T.|tcnn of twenty-two weeks held that year 
Bowen superintendent, at a salary of S400;and since that date it has been gradually 
per annum, (which he earned twice over, )' regaining the ground occupied In 1S58. 
requiring him to give a large share of his; Prof. George "W. IIoss acted as superintend- 
time to the duties of the office. He effected;ent in 1SG2-3, having 29 teachers employed 
a marked improvement, but it was soonjand 2,374 pupils enrolled. In September, 
evident that the duties required more labor! 1863, the system was again reorganised, A. 
and time than he could bestow, and the^C. Shortridge being elected .-upcrintendent, 
council, in March, 1856, appointed George and since that date lull terms of thirty-nine 
B. Stone (who had succeeded E. P. Cole asl weeks have been held each year. The 
principal of the high school,) superinten-'schools are graded as primary, intermediate 
dent at a salary of 81,000 a year, requiring;and high, with four subordinate grades (A. 
him to give all his time to the schools. HejB. C. and D. i in each. Common text books 
at once p^erfected the system, adopted im-jare used in the similar grades, and all the 
proved methods of teaching, held meetings ^cjiildren in any given subordinate grade of 
of tlie teachers and examined and drilled all the schools are simultaneously pursuing 
them for tlieir work, inspired tli>;-m witli his the same course of study, irraduating from 
own zeal and energy, and made the system ;tlie lower to tiie higher su!>ordinate grades, 
so thorough and popular that the prejudice and from the primary to the intermediate 
which had existed against it died out. The 'and thence to the high school, the whole 
school tax was willingly paid, and the pri-icourse requiring twelve years, (ten months 
vate schools sank into tiie back ground or|in each year,) and giving the pupils a 
languished for want of llieir former sup-;thorough English education. Daily regis- 
port. With the increasing revenue better Iters are kept showing the conduct, atten- 
salaries (ranging from S-JOO to S600,) werejdance and si-holarship of each puj'Il, and a 
paid, the terms were lengthened, more given average nnist be attained before pro- 
teachers engaged, 35, mostly females, being: motion to a higher grade is granted. The 
employed in 1857. The average attendance, registers thus kept show a great improve- 
of pujiils had risen from 340 in April, lS53,'ment in attendance and scholarship in the 
to 1,400 in 1856, and 1,800 in 1857. The! last three years. 

total number enrolled at that date was about] The school buildings and the whole sys- 
2,800. Ten houses were occupied, seatingitem are controlled by three trustees elected 
comfortably only 1,200, but crowded with. by the city council, but accountable for their 
1,800 pupils. Forty-four per cent, of the acts and expenditures to tiie county corn- 
children in the city were enrolkrl, and 73'raissioners and the sujx;rintendent of imblic 
per cent, of those enrolled were in avcrage|instruction. They have charge ot the ex- 

Iicnditures for buikhncr>, tuition, eraploy-l wards, under (he snpervision of ^cvon trus- 
ment ot teachers, .Vc; tlie exfen.liturts ht- tees, one to each district or ward. V hoard 
111.2; made from two separate lun.b, one of three trustees was then elected hv the 
being lor buildinirs and repairs, the olherioouncil to take chnr-e of the entire ^^^tcm 
for tuition, and derived partly from the State'and retained the control of it till -Vpfil !'>' 
school lund_ and partly irom a spet.'ial citya,S61. %vhen (under the new hw) an ordi- 
tax. The immediate raana-enient of the| nance was passed making the wards di^tric'= 
schools devolve^ on a superintendent, whoand requiring the voters of each of tlie seven 
devotes his whole time to them and receives; wards to elect a school tni4re fr.r their 
a salary of S'2O0O. The teachers (sixty-two! ward. They were elected in Mav of that 
of whom are now employed, three male andlyear for two vears. This svstem continued 
fitty-nme lemale,) receive salaries ranging "tiU April, 1865, when, under the law of tiiat 
from S400 to ^,00, and are only employed ^-ear, the council elected three trustee- W 
after a thorough examination of their oual-iH. L. Xohlc, T. B. Elliott and C. Vonne- 
iHcations for the position. I mpr o ved'gut, who have since been continued in office 
methods ot instructioa have been prc.mptlyand had the entire management of our citv 
adopted, object teachin-. gymnastics, music.Uchool svstem. The citv is greatly indehte^l 
penmanship and other branches, are taughtito the "earlv trustees '(prominent among 
by special instructors, who visit the schools^whom were"}Ienrv F. AVest, Ilenrv P. Co- 
in turn fur that purp.>se. Jburn, Calvin Fletcher, sr., Silas T". Bowen, 
The lollowing table shows the numl:>er of David V. CuUev, David S. Beattv and Jno. 
houses, teachers, children enrolled in the B. Dillon.) for their zeal, ener<:v";<nd i>erse- 
schools, average number enrolled, daily verance under verv discouraging circum- 

average attendance and per cent, of atten- 

stances. and to the present board, Messrs. 

dance frrmi 1S63 to the present time. Noj Noble. Elliott and Vonnegut, for reviving 
reliable returns exist as to the total numhenand carrving forward the svstem. Silas T. 
of children of school age (6 to 21,) in theJBowen, George B. Stone, George "W. 
city for the several years, and no records and A. C. Shortridge, have been the super- 
intendents. To Mr. Stone belongs the cred- 
it for perfecting the svstem and demrmstrat- 
ed, 4, -200 children can he accommcHiated'ing its u^^efulness, and to Mr. Shortridge its 
with seat.s, and 75 or SO teachers can be revival and present efficiency. The city 

exist as to above items for the years 1S53-8 
When the new sixth ward building is open 















3,2 !2 

1,1-,. 1(1 














In September, 1853, when tlie graded 
system was adopted, the schools were rated 

J. Squier and W. A. Bell. The present 
salary is SI, 600. 

From 1847 to Jamiary, 1853, the scr.ools 
were conducted indci^ndently in tlie seven 

may well be prnud of the system, and of the 
thoroughly drilled corps of instructors new 
employed, and with continued careful man- 
agement the free schools will be among the 
first of her future glories. 

In May, 1847, the Grand Masonic Lodge 
bought a lot at the south-east corner of 
Washincrton and Tennessee streets .".nd 
formed a s^tock company to build a hall. A 
plan drawn by J. AVillis, architect, having 
been accepted, the corner-stone was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies October 25th, 

primar%', intermediate, grammar 3nd:1848, and the hall built in 1849-50 at a cost 
hi^rh schoo'l, the last being opened in thejof about $20,000. It was opened in the 
old seminarv building, on the first of .Sep- 'spring, but not finished till the fall of 1850. 
tciiiber, hv E. P. Cole, with one a,'=si.-tant.;and was finally dedicated by the Grand 
It was held there till the downfall of theilxidge May 27th, 1851. The concert room 
schools in 1858. It wa.s re-established in'in the -econd story was the first large hall 
1864, and held at the first ward hou-e. andiopened here for public meetings, and was 
from the sprin? of 1867 in the old Secondlin con.=tant use from the time of its 
Presbyterian Church on Circle street, which 'opening till the erection of Morri.-^on's Opera 
was then purchased for $13,500. Thisi Hall on Meridian street in 18G5, since which 
buildins;; is now undergoing alterations anditime it has been comparatively little u.~ed. 
being better fitted for school uses at an ex-|The cc^nstitutional convention of 1850 was of about $4,500. The principals otiheld in Ma.sonic Hall, and nearly all the 
this school from 1853 to 1858 were E. P. 'conventions, concerts, lectures, panorama.?, 
Cole, Georee B. Stone and W. B. Henkle.innd exhibitions, dramatic and othcrwi.-e, for 
Since 1S'J4 W. A. Bell, Pleasant Bond, W.ififteen years, were dven in it. Almost all 

the leading speakers, lecturers and singers 
of the country have appeared on its stage. 
The stixk in the building 'was Ion? since 
purchased by the Grand Lodge, ar.d it is 

now projio-ed to chanqe and improve theia flat bar track till lSoO-2, wlien it was 
building. taken up and T rail substituted. 

A meeiing was he'd in May to make a r- The Madison road had been begun in \ 
rang?ments for a formal welcome to tlujl83S by the vState, the cost being estimated 
Fii-st Indiana Eegimeut of Volunteers cx-jat f-2,240,000, of which sum the inclined 
pected soon to return from Mexico. The! plane was to cost S27il,000. Twenty-eight 
welcome proved a failure, as the volunteer.-! miles were finished in 1841 at a co-t of SI,- 
retunicd in small s(iuads in wagon.s and; 000,000. Braidium A Co. leased tlie road 
stages at ditlerent periods, and it was impos-in April, lSo9, for sixtv per cent, of the re- 
sibie to divide the "enthusiasm" accord- Ireipts, the State keep'ing up rejuurs and 
ingly. _ I -applying motive power. The work wa.s 

The first in.-talment of female teacher.- -urrcndend to a corajiany in 1S42, and 
sent by Governor Slade from New England 'eomjileted October 1st, 1847. X. B. I'alm- 
arrived here in June and were sent to vari-{er, S. Merrill, John Brough, E. W. II. El- 
0U3 parts of the country. They were soor.ilis, F. O. J. Smith and others were presi- 
niarried, and others were afterward sent in 'dents till the line was sold. In Januarj-, 
their stead. In July, the remains of Cap-jlS54, it was consolidated with and operated 
tain T. B. Kinder, brought from Buen; 'together with the I*eru road, but the ar- 
Vista by his company, were buried with ruigcment was severed after a few months, 
military honors in the old cemetery-. jit was sold by the United States Mar.*hal 

The near completion of the Madison rail-IMirch 27th, l'8G2, for S325,000, and a new 
road awakened ilie interest of tlie commim-jcompany organized, and was bought a year 
ity in such enterprises, and frecjuent raecL-jor two afterward by the Jefiersonville Com- 
ings Avere held during tlie summer and falipany, and has since been operated by that 
to advocate roads to diCerent points anc or::anization. For some time after its corn- 
organize companies. A new impetus wa- ipLnion this road paid better tlum any other 
given to business, street improvements wen in the country. In 1852 its stock sold at 
begun, new buildings and work-hops erect- SI. 60, and in Jaiuiary, 185G, h:.d lallcn to 
ed, and new residents were met daily oi twj and one-half cents on the dollar. The 
the streets. IStite held stock in the road valued at Sl,- 

Arrangements were made September 2otl !2Xt,000, but was ultimately cheated out of 
at a citizens' meeting to celebrate the com- 'it, receiving scarcely anything for it. 
pletion of the railroad on the 1st of October. | The isolation of the town ended with the 
The last rail was laid at about nine o'clocl co'npletion of this road. An outlet for trav- 
that morning, just as two crowded excurs'on! el and surplus products at last existed, and 
trains arrived from below, greeted by a th3 town became a centre of trairic for a 
great crowd of rejoicing natives, many c f co.isiderable region around it. "Wheat, 
whom then first saw a locomotive and train, jwiiich had been selling at forty cents per 
and who joyously filled an excursion traii: |b tshel, rose in a few weeks to ninety cents, 
to Franklin and back. The great even O her farm products advanced in propor- 
wa?i celebrated by the firing of cannon, anc ti n, and goods and groceries declined, 
by a proce-ssion v.'hich included Spalding' Trade improved, building increased, work- 
entire circus outfit, Ned Kendall's band ai d -hops were started, property advanced in 
a country- cavalry company. An addre.-.-; price, and city airs were timidly assumed, 
was also'delivercd by Governor "\Vhitcoml | The Mndison road exacted such high 
from the top of a car at the depot, and rn| -ales for fares and freights, and for sev- 
illumination and fireworks exlubition closed' Tal ye.'^rs made such heavy profits that 
the festivities at night. The excursionists. )ppositiou was Hroused ; other routes were 
were hauled across the low and muddy val-i lemanded, and roads to I'ellefoutaine, 
ley of rogue's run in carriages and'wo( d! I'erre Haute. Peru, Lafayete, Lawrence- 
wagons, and the fev,- hotels were crowdidj mrg and Jeffersonville, were advocated, 
with hungry guests. The depot had been be old coiupanies were resuscitated, or 
located on 'the high ground .south of the lew cLarters obtained; the j. rejects were 
creek, a quarter of a mile from the town,; nergeiically pushed in 184^^-0, meetings 
during the preceding summer, its locatioij fere held, stock subscribed, surveys made 
there lieinc: op]iose<l bv many per^nn-; whr ' md coniracts let. In 1840-30 a railroad 
urged that it should 'front 'on Mar\-land '^ver prevniled in the community, and did 
street, which was then the southern seUUd, 'Ot subside until eight lines were corn- 
limit. A cluster of warehouses was built peied, mid the city became widely known 
around it, and for several vears it formed a a- the '-raiiroad city' of the west. From 
.separate settlement uutil "the expansion of; under estimates as to cost and over esti- 
the citv included it in the b(Hlv of the place-.l^^t^s as to immedirite business, the lines 
The depot was built in 1846-7, the cnginefailed to realize the hopes of stock! olderg, 
house and shops in 1850, and the road had,but while not at once remunerative to ihena, 


the gain to the State fitnl city wn? very ' but the frame depot is still iifci for way 
great. The construction, in a few yours, ; freifrbts. The first depot and shops, witli 
of many depots, shops and warehouses, dis- ; 1,100 feet of track and five acres of ground 
bursed much money, ivttracted ninny work- j were sold in Jul}', lb'-J3, for $17,-ji.'0 to Mr. 
men, and stimulated nianuficturing enter- | Farnsworth, and were used by Farnsworth 
prises. The population of 4.000 in 1847, ! i; Bara.ird as a car factory from Noreinber 
increased to 8.100 in IS.')0. 10,8U0 in lSo2, | 18o3 till 1S59. It then remained vacant 
15,000, in 1857, and 18,000 in 1860. till after the war bec:an and was occupied 

For sometime each ro\d u-^ed its owade- ! as a Government stable from 1S62 to 1865, 
pot; pa-'sengerg and freiphts being trans- l when it was burned down. The Cellefon- 
ferred from one to the other by hacks and i taine road was consolidated in Ibo 3 with 
drays, but a connection by rail was soon : the connecting Ohio line to Gallon. The 
proposed, and an apreement having been i stock was "watered'' and the name 
made in August, 184y, between the compa- j changed to the Indianapolis, Pittsburg x 
nies, and the right of way having been ! Cleveland Railroad. In the spring of 1868 
granted December 20, 1818 by the council, ! a further consolidation was effected with 
the Union Railroad Co., was organized, the ; the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati 
Union track located and laid in 1S50, (re- | road, and the new road is known as the 
laid in 1853,) the ground bought and a | Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & In- 
Union passenger depot, 120 by 420 feet, | dianapolis Railroad. 0. H. Smith, Alfred 
built in 1852-3, on .Meridian. Illinois and I Harrison, Calvin Fletcher, John Brough. 
Louisiana streets. It was opened Seplem- j S. Wiu, and others, have been Presidents of 
ber 28, 1853, William \. Jackson being | this corporation since its charter. It has 
appointed general ticket agent, a post I been one of the best freight and passenger 
ever since held by him. It has since been j roads leading to this point, 
used by eight separate lines, and was en- | The Lawrencebura: and upper Mississip- 
larged, improved and an eating house ' pi road was originally begun in sections, 
added in 1866. In December, l^'jl. the ' or several short roads, in 1850, a through 
Junction Railroad Co., and the Crawfords- ''• road being bitterly and successfully op- 
ville and Vincennes lines unsuccessfully ! posed by the .Madison Co., but was finally 
applied for admission to the depot, and it i chartered in 1851 and finished to Law- 
is possible that a Union passenger station ; renceburg, 90 miles, in October 1853, un- 
will yet be erected in the western part of ! der Geo. H. Dunn, the first president. The 
the city. Such a depot will ultimately be j name was changed December 1853 to the 
erected, for the present one can not accom- : Indianapolis and Cincinnati road. The 
modate all the business of the future. j Ohio and Mississippi road having been fin- 

A brief statement of the history of the \ ished from Cincinnati to Lawrenceburg in 
several roads projected and built since the j .April 1854, a third rail was laid and the 
-Madison road, may be given here. Promi- i cars run to that city, 110 miles, under a 
nent among these w:is the Btdlefontaine i lease. In 1854-5 the old White-water ca- 
road to Union City on the State line, which ] nal was bought, and a separate track laid 
was energetically pushed by the first Pres- i in its bed, and a fine passenger and freight 
idcnt, Oliver H. Smith, its construction | depot built. The shops of the corn- 
being largely due to his efforts. It was i pany were built south-east of the city in 
chartered in 1S48, meetings held, stock sub- I 1S53, but were burned in 1855, and soon af- 
scribed and right-of-way secured in 1S4S- i terward rebuilt. They were removed to 
9; contracts were let in the fall of 1849, I Cincinnati in 1865 and are now located 
track-laying began April, 1850, cars ran to lihere. The brick freight depot was built 
Pendleton, twenty-eight miles, December, on Louisiana and Delaware streets in 1853, 
1850, and the road v.-as finished, eighty- I and is now used by the consolidated roads. 
four CBiles, to the State line, December | In 1S66, after an effort to build a rival line 
1852, at a cost of $21,550 per mile. The I via Crawfordsville to Lafayette, a consoli- 
brick depot and shops were built in 1851, j dation was effected with the Lafiyette road 
in the north-east part of tiie city and j and the name adopted for the united corpo- 
used till the Union depot and track were ' ration is Indianapolis, Cincinnati and La- 
finished, when a frame freight di'pot and ; fayeite road^ Branch roads have been 
brick engine house and shops were built in ; built up the Whitewater valley on the ca- 
November, 1853, at the corner of Virginia ; nal bank, and from Fairland to .Martins- 
avenue and Pogue's run. Tliese were used i ville, and in March 1868 a consolidation 
till 1S64 when the large frame freigVit de- I was effected with the Vincennes road. — 
pot and brick shops and engine house were | Much opposition was aroused by this last 
completed and occupied in the eastern part ! movement, but Mr. Lord, in a speech to our 
of tlie city. The engine house and shops ; business men, in April 1838, greatly al- 
■ on Virginia avenue were then torn away, | layed the feeling, and promised that his 


policy should not prove detrimental to the 
interests of this city. Geo. H. Dunn, Thos. 
A. Morris and Henry C. Lord have been 
presidents of this corporation. 

Tiie Jeffersonville road was begun in 
1S48 and finished to Editibur<ih, 7S miles, 
in lSr^■2, at a cost of §1, 18-3,000. It b:;d 
been designed to extend to this point, but 
in August 1853 a lease Tras obtained from 
the Madison roid, by which the use of that 
road with its shops, depots and iiouses wa^ 
perpetually secured, and in ISoo the Jef- 
fersonville company bought the entire road 
and equipment and now operate both line-!. 
A branch road was built in lSo2 from Ed- 
inburgh to Shelbyville and Rushville, 2o 
miles,. at a cost of io2-j.000, but was after- 
ward abandoned. The war trafhc and 
travel was immense over the .JeQersonville 
road, it being the only direct southern line 
leading to the seat of war. John Zulauf, 
Dillard Ricketts and others, have been its 

The Terre Haute and Richmond road was 
projected in 184G, surveyed December 1817, 
contracts let in 1813-9, commenced in 18-jO, 
and finished to Terre Haute, 73 miles, in 
May 1852, at a cost of $1,415,000, under 
Chauncy Rose, its firstj president. The 
eastern section was abandoned and its con- 
etruciion undertaken by the Indiana Cen- 
tral Railway Co. in 1851. The brick freight 
depot (remodeled in 1857,) was built on 
Louisiana and Tennessee streets in 1850-1. 
Its roof was partly blown off in 1865 by the 
explosion of the pony engine of the Cen- 
tral company, inside the building. The 
engine house and tlie fiame bridge over 
White river were built in 1851-2, and the 
bridge was replaced by a handsome iron 
structure in 180*3, without interrupting 
trafiBc on the line. The road has been 
prosperous, well managed, has met with 
few accidents, and is the main line for 
western trade and travel. It is bIso the 
only coal road yec buili. The company 
have no shops here, the repairs being made 
at Terre Haute. Chauncy Rose, S. (Craw- 
ford, E. J. Peck and others, have been its 

The Peru and Indianapolis road w^.s 
chartered at the session of 1645-6, the com- 
pany organized July 1847, road surveyed 
October 1847, located July 1843, com- 
menced 1849, cars were run to Noblesville, 
21 miles, March 1851, and the road com- 
pleted to Peru, 73 miles, .April 3, 1854, at 
a cost of about i^TGO^OOO. It was con- 
solidated June 1, 1854, with, and operated 
for several months by the Madison road. 
The road traversed a new country, encoun- 
tered many obstacles, and has not been as 
successful as other lines. It has been the 
main source of supply for lumber and tim- 

ber, and since its northern connections 
were finished has had a fair share of the 
north-western trade and travel. It passed 
into a receiver's hands in 1857, and has 
since been operated for the bondholders. — 
Its shops are at Peru, nnd its buildings 
here have never been of much value. It 
was originally laid with flat bar, taken np 
from tlie Madison road, but Trail was sub- 
stituted in 1855-6. The first frame dtpot 
was commenced in August, 18ii6, on New 
Jersey street and Pogue's run, but was 
blown down during a storm, September 17, 
burying about a dozen men in the ruins, 
' and badly injuring several of them. An- 
other was built in !^^ovembe^ t'ollowing. — 
I VV. J. Holman, Jno. Burk. E. W. H. Ellis, J. 
1 D. Defrees and David .Macy, have been 
i presidents. 

1 The Lafayette nnd Indianapolis road was 
I begun in 184'J and finished to Lafayette, 
j 65 miles, in December 1652, at a cost of 
j about $l,00O,Otj0, under Albert S. "White, 
[ the first president. The stock subscription 
I was small, tlie road being mostly built by 
1 loans which were subsequently paid otf 
I from the earnings of the road, making its 
stock very valuable. Until the completion 
I of the northern connections of the Peru 
i road it was the main route to the north- 
I west, and did a very lucrative business du- 
; ring the war. In 1866 Henry C. Lord 
i iiaving failed to buy the road or effect a 
i consolidation with it, began the consiruc- 
1 tion of a rival route to Danville and the 
1 north-west via Crawfordsville, and after 
i doing considerable work achieved his ob- 
i ject, and obtained a perpetual lease of the 
line, and it is now controlled and operated 
j by the Cincinnati company. The Lafay- 
; ette freight depot was buili in 1852-3, on 
I North street and the canal, but was burned 
I in 1864, and rebuilt in 1865. Since the 
I consolidation it has been but little used, 
i the business of both roads being done at 
the Delaware street depot. The company 
I never liad any shops at this point, the con- 
' struction and repairs bcins done at Lafay- 
; ette. A. S. White and Wm. F. Reynolds, 
j were the presidents of the company. 

The Indiana Central Railway Company 
I was organized in the spring, surveys 
j made in the summer, and contracts let in 
the fall of 1851. Track-laying began No- 
vember, 1852, and the road, was completed 
to the State line, seventy-two miles, De- 
cember 8. 1853, at a cost of 81,223,000, 
under John S. Newman, the first President. 
It divides eastern trade and travel with 
the Dellefontaine road, and was consoli- 
dated with the Ohio connecting road in 
1863, and afterwards known as the Indi- 
anapolis & Columbus road. A further 
consolidation was etfected in 1867, with- 


the Chicago and GrcAt Eastern roal, find 
the offices and shops are to he removed 
elsewhere. The brick freight depot was 
built on Delfiwnre sireet and Pocue's run 
in \So2, and its sliops just east of the city, 
in the s\me )-ear. 

At and since the date of completion of 
the f'jregoing roads, several others were 
projected, or in course of construction; 
among them was the Junction road, ninety- 
eight miles long, from Hamilton, Ohio, via 
Rushville and Connorsville, to this city. 
It was begun in seprtrate sections, in 18-50, 
by the Ohio and Indianapolis, and the 
Junction (Companies, which were consol- 
idated. April, ISoo, with .31.800,000 stock 
subscripiion.s. Several hundred thousand 
dollars were expended on the line, the 
depot grounds here were purchased, and 
the road half finislied, when the hard 
times of 1855-6 caused its suspension and 
the sale of its lands at a nominal price. 
The company was re-org\nized in 18G6, 
work was resumed, a subsidy of ■$4.5,0')0 
voted to it by our citj-, depot grounds 
bought, and the road finished to this point 
in May, 18tJS. The freight depot will be 
built on Virginia avenue, south of Poguc's 
run, and the shops nnd offices are to be 
located here by contract with the city. 
Caleb B. Smith, Jno. Ridenour and others 
have been Presidents of the Company. 

The Vinccnnes road was first projected 
in 1851, and a compan}' organized in 1853, 
with John H. Bradley, President; but 
only a preliminary survey was made, and 
the enterprije was ab:indoned during the 
subsequent monetary revulsion. .\ new 
company was organized under General 
Burnside, in ISHo, the contracts let, and a 
subsidy of S60.000 granted by the city in 
18GG, and right of way secured ; work is 
now being rapidly prosecuted along the 
line, and the road will be finished from 
Gosport to this city during the present 
year. The shops and ottices, by agree- 
ment with the city, are to be located here. 
The road traverses the best iron, coal, 
stone, timber aud grain region of the 
State, and will be second to none in im- 
portance, and it is all important that its 
management should not be adverse to our 
interests. On the 3d of .\pril, ISoS, it 
was consolidated with the Cincinnati road. 

A direct road to Ev.insville, one hundred 
and fifcy miles long, had been projected in 
181'.;t, but nothing vras done till April, IS53, 
when Oliver H. Smith and Willard Car- 
penter organized a company under the 
general law, and held meetings, subscribed 
stock, surveyed the line, let contracts, and 
pushed the work rapidly forward till 1 85G, 
when the monetary pressure stopped the 
enterprise, and caused the loss of nearly 

everything invested in it. It is still dor- 
mant, but its importance, and the rich ag- 
ricultural and mineral region it traversed, 
the auiouQt expended on it, and the heavy 
soui'ii-wesleru trade, certainly dem lud a 
renewal of the enterprise, and its favora- 
ble consideration by our people, e-ipeiialiy 
since the raanageiueut of the Vincennes 
road will probably be adverse to our in- 

The Cincinnati i Indianapolis Sliort- 
liiie llailroad Company, from this point 
via Rushville, Laurel aud Brookville to 
Cii\cinnat!, was organized in January, 
1853 ; subscriptions were obtained, sur- 
veys made, contracts let, and oiher steps 
1 taken, but the enterprise was suspended 
I by hard times in 1S54-5, before any tm- 
I gible 'results were obtained, and has not 

since been revived. 
I The Toledo & Indianapolis Railroad 
I Compiuy. via Muncie to Toledo, one hun- 
dred and eighty-five miles, was organized 
I February, 1S54, under ilie general law. 
j Seventy-five miles of road, only, were to 
I be bnlli to make connections with e.\;isiing 
I roads, and secure a short and direct route 
i for grain to tiic lake. Surveys wore made, 
j and elforts to obtain subscriptions, but 
I the financial pressure of 1855 ptiL an end 
j temporarily to the scheme. 
I The Indiana & Illinois Central Railroad, 
one hundred and sixty miles long on an 
j air line, to Uec^tur, Illinois, was proposed 
I in December, 1852, and organized Febru- 
ary 15, 1853. Surveys were made, sub- 
scriptions obtained, and contracts let in 
July, 1853, for the whole line, at 622,000 
per mile, to be done in 1855, and $500, ')00 
of work was done. The hard times in- 
tervened, the work stopped, and the com- 
pany lands were sold to pay the contrac- 
tors. The line is almost straight, trav- 
erses a beautiful and rich country, opens 
up coal and iron regions, and gives a di- 
rect western line to the Pacific road Its 
importance merits renewed etrort, and 
the company — which was re-org.-inized in 
iSotJ — should attempt its construction. 

In 18*J6, before the Cincinnati road had 
succeeded in forcing the sale of the La- 
fayette line, 11. C. Lord, as the final effort, 
determined to build a rival line via Craw- 
fordsville. The city voted a subsidy of 
S-lo.OuO, right of way was secured, sur- 
veys made, contracts let, and cons:der.ible 
work done at this end of the line, when 
the Lafayetto road consented to sell, and 
the new line was at once abandoned. This 
summary disposal of the matter displeased 
the residents along the line ; the company 
was soon le-organized, contracts relet, 
and the work is now in It is to 
be hoped that a new outlet to the north- 



west will be speedily found through the locomotives, cars, and all other articles 

rich region tr.'iyersed by this line. 

In 1SG7 :in eQort wis made by the east- 
ern roads to force ft sale or consolidation 
of the Terre Haute road, which having 
failed, it announced ihat a straicrht- 

ueeded in tlie equipment of their roads. 
One great establishment, under competent 
management, could combine the iron and 
brass foundries, rolling mills, laachine 
shops, saw and planing mills, forges, up- 

line road to St. Louis wo'ald be built from ] holster^-, punt and ether shops, needed in 

this point. Surveys were made, right of 
way secured, subscriptions voted, and the 
contracts, it is said, will be let this year. 
The road sliould be built, as it will tjive 
an additional and competing route to the 
coal and iron beds of the western pan of 
tlie State, i>nd the city can well atford to 

the fabrication of every item used by them. 
Such an establishment, with the capital it 
could employ, the thorough subdivision and 
supervision of labor, the extent and variety 
of articles manufactured, the steady de- 
mand therefor by the stockholding roads 
and outside lines, located here where the 

aid the enterprise, first providing tliai no I influx and efliux of materials and articles 
consolidation shall be made with compel- i would be so ready and certain, and skilled 

ing roads. The Terre Haute company is 
also engaged in building a straight line 
from that city to St. Louis, as a continua- 
tion of their own route. 

It will be seen from the foregoing brief 
statement of facts connected with the sev- 
eral roads, that only one of the completed 

laborers, so readily brought, couid defy 
private competition, furnish all articles to 
its stockholders at cost, and pay ail expen- 
ses and a protit from outside work. 

But few mills or manufactories existed 
here till afier the completion of the .Madi- 
son road, for the local demand was very 

lines, (the Bellefontaine,) ever located its I limited, and shipments to other points 

principal shops at this point, and even that 
road, since its consolidation, has its main 
shops in Ohio. The excuse advanced for 
this general action has been tliat work 
could be done cheaper elsewhere; but this, 
even if true in one or two cases, can 
scarcely be true of every little town in 
this or other States, and the solution of the 
problem is to be found partly in the jeal- 
ousy of other cities toward this, and mostly 
in the want of enterprise on the pan of 
our own people. They have not deemed it 
necessary, either for their own interests 
or those of tho city, to hold a controlling 
interest in the highways leading here, and 

almost impossible. UndorhilTs foundry, 
on Pennsylvania street, started by Grover 
in ISo'j, was the only one here. The grist 
mills of West and of Carlisle, West's cot- 
ton and woolen mill, Ilannaman's woolen 
and oil mill, and Sheet's paper mill, were 
on the canal, and liad been built since 
1838. Patterson's grist mill was on Fall 
creek, and the old steam (grist, woolen 
and saw) mills, on the river, had been re- 
paired by Geisendorfl's in 1S17, and used 
as a woolen mill till li^ol, when they built 
a mill (subsequently enlarged,) on the west 
branch of the canal. Of mills and manu- 
factories, built since 1847, the more prom- 

the consequence has been that as little as I inent may be briefly mentioned here The 
possible has been done by the railways to- | principal (/ritt mills were Carlisle's, (his 
ward building up our manufacturing inter- } old mill was burnt January 18, '5G,) now 
ests. In many respects this city is better Sohl &; Gibson, on the canal, built 1S63; 
situated for nianufaciuring than any other' Underbills, south of the city, IBol: Skil- 
in this or tlie adjoining States, and its | ten's, IbGo; Capital mili^, 185G; Morris' 

advantages increase with the opening of 
every additional line; and, if it fails to 
achieve a high rank in this respect, the 
fault will lie solely with our own capital- 
ists, and the blame should lie where it be- 
longs. It has been too much the fashion 
here to wait for others to increase the 

mills, south Pennsylvania street, 1848, 
burnt 1851; Bates' mill.-*, Pogue's run, 
1859. Of saw mills, Kortpeter's, south 
Pennsylvania street, 1840; Fletcher & 
Wells, Massachusetts avenue, 1857; Gay 
& Stevens, .Madison depot, 1857; Hill's, 
East street, 1858, burned and rebuilt Octo- 

value of property which is held by the ! ber. 1859; Off i Wishmire's, Railroad 
few, and the money on hand, instead of j street, 1858; Helwig & Blake's, canal, 
creating wealth by producing manut'ac- ! 1858; Marsee's, New Jersey street, 1859; 
tured articles from comparatively valuless I McKernan 6c Pierce, Kentucky avenue, 
raw material, is doled out sparingly at j 18G5. Of ///anw// 7?ji//.5, Sheliaberger's, east 
one and two percent, per month, taxing ! .Market, 18o2 ; Blake & Gentle's, (the first 
the life out of those who do attempt to j one here.) Vermont street, 1849; Kreglo & 
create such articles. It spems singular | Blake, canal, 1855, burue'I and rebuilt in 
that, while the railway companies combined I Aug., 18'ji3; Byrket's, Tennessee street, 
and suci-es-^fully operated a union track j 1857; .McCord & Wheatley s, Alabama 
and depot, that they never entered into a | street, 1S';5; Tate's, New Jersey street, 
union con.pany for the mauut\aclure of j lot;4; Hill i: Wingate's, East street, 1858, 



burned in October and rebuilt November, 
l^o'J; Builders i: .M:i!iuf;4ctiircrs' Associa- 
tion, Delnw.ire street, 18GG; Carpenters' 
Association, !;ouih and Meridian streets, 
Ibtjij; Emerson's, near the r.anal, 1.SG3; 
Beam's, west Waehingion street, IHtJo; 
Bebynier's, enst Market street, 1SG4. 

Shingle mills, Evarts, south Pennsylva- 
nia, 1867; Smock's, east Washington, 18uS. 
t)f furniture and chair factories, John 
Olt, west Washington, 1S55; Sloan & In- 
gersoil, IS-JU; Espy i: Sloan, 1848; John 
'V'etter, Madison depot, 1>57, hurned 18G6; 
Philip Dohu, south Meridian, l^Go, burned 
and rebuilt, 18G7; Spiegel and Thorns, east 
Washington, 1855, and East street, 1SG3, 
enlarged to double size, IbGG, and the first 
five-story house built in the city; H el wig & 
Roberts, canal, 1857, burned and retDuilt 
1&G("); M. S. Huey, west Washington, 1855; 
Field & Day, Vermont street, ItoO; Wilk- 
ens & Hull, west Washington, 18G4; C. J. 
• Meyer, east Washington, ISGO; Cabinet- 
makers' Union, east Market, 1859. 

Of coopering establishments, there h^ive 
been Detrees, on the caual, Murphey'sand 
May'son Eaststreet; Careys and Brennon's, 
near Soldiers' Home; McNceleys, near La- 
fayette depot; Kingans and otliers. 

Of peg and last factories, Crawford & Os- 
good, south Pennsylvania street, 1848, 
and burned 1851 ; C^sgood i Smith, south 
Illinois, 1852, burned and rebuilt, once or 
twice afterward ; Yandes ^ Kemper, south 
Illinois, 1SG7. 

Of wagou or carriage manufactories, 
Hiram Gasiou, Kentucky avenue, 1853; 
Lowes, east Market, ISGS; Drews, east 
Market, 1852; Sh^vrs, Georgia street, 1866. 
Of spokes and felloes, Osgood Smith & 
Co., south Illinois, 1852. 

Of woolen mills, GeisendorfFs, on the 
canal, 1852; Merritt & Coughlen, in Han- 
naman's old mill, on the river, 1849 or 'iO, 
were burned out in January, 1851, and re- 
built in May, 1851; West's, ISo'J; Younts, 
184y, on the canal. 

3 ,0f paper mills, Sheets, on canal, 1839; 
Gay li Bradens, canal, 1862; McLean &| 
Co., river, 18G1. 

(>f cotton taills. West, canal, 1839, and 
the Cotton Mill Co., on the river, 18G7. 

Of agricultural and farm implements I 
and machinery, W. M. Cause, 185G; Beard ! 
& Siuex, and Beard ,;?>: Forsha, Tennessee | 
street, 1857; Hasselman i. Vinton, south I 
Meridian, 1852; Chandler i Taylor, west | 
Washington, 1859, burned and rebuilt ! 
18G3(?j; Binkley ^; Co., south Tennessee,! 
18GU; Beard ^Nc Starr, north Tennessee, j 
18G0; Agricultural Works Co., south Ten- | 
nessee, 1864. j 

Of oil mills, J. P. Evans 5: Co., south 
Delaware, 1862. 

Iron manufactures have <aken the lead- 
ing rank at this point, and proroiso still 
more rapid growth in future. The interest 
has risen in the last fifteen years from a 
ver}- email beginning. The first steam en- 
gine ever built here, a small affair of three 
I or four horse power, was completed in June, 
I 1848, by .Mr. Sergeant, at Bardwell's shop, 
! in the basement of Crawford & O.agooil's 
j factory, on south Pennsylvania street. The 
I first foundry in the plice was started in 
' July, 1832, by R. A. .McPhorson ,t Co., near 
' the bridge, west of t!ie river. Joshua Glover 
j had been doing some iron work on a small 
I scale in 1831. Underbill, Woo'l & Co. 
I started a foundry in July, lS3o, on north 
I Pennsylvania street, and in 18S8, Under- 
i hill applied steam power in it, being the 
I first to use it in a foundry here. He man- 
ufactured plow points, skillets, and other 
small castings, remaining there till 18-'>2, 
when he built a large foundry on south 
Pennsylvania street, and failing iu busi- 
ness the building was applied to other pur- 
poses, and burned up in November, 1S5S. 
Taylor, Walson & Co., in 1848 built a small 
foundry in the low ground south of Pogue's 
run, and first began to make steam engines 
here in 1849. This establishment subse- 
quently passed into FLisselman & Vinton's 
hands, who built the present foundry, 
boiler and machine shops in' 1852. The 
firm suffered heavy losses in -May, and also 
in July, 1553, from fires. In 18G5 the es- 
tablishment passed into the control of the 
Eagle Machine Works Co., who now carry 
on a heavy business in the manufacture of 
castings, boilers and agricultural imple- 
ments, their trade extending over a large 
territory, and employing a heavy capital. 
In March, 1854, Wright, Barnes & Co., af- 
terward Ira Davis & Co., built a foundry 
on Delaware street and Pegue's run, which 
burned down in 1857. Curtis & Dumont 
began the manufacture of boilers on south 
Pennsylvania street in 1852, next north of 
Underbill's foundry, and Kelshaw tV Sinker 
began the same business at about the same 
time, just south of the same foundry. Their 
shop was burned in December, 1853, and 
rebuilt in 1854. Dumont ^"i Sinker became 
partners, continuing the business, and add- 
ing a foundry. In 18G3, Dumont left, and 
the establishment, now greatly enlarged, is 
carried on as a foundry, machine shop and 
boiler factory, on the site of Underbill's 
old City Foundry, by Sinker, Allen cS: Yan- 
des. In 1851, Deloss Root 6: Co., built a 
small frame stove foundry, south of the 
Gas Works on Pennsylvania street. It was 
burned up in January, ISGO, but soon re- 
built of brick on a much more extended 
scale, and stoves, heavy casting-) and boil- 
ers, are now largely manufactured by the 


establishment. Wiggins & Chandler, in 
June, 185y, built a small foundry and 
machine shop on the Canal and west 
Washington street. It was burned in 
1SG3, (?) but soon after rebuilt on a more 
extended scale by Chandler & Taylor, and 
has since done a laree busines". In ISoS, 
Redstone, Bros. & Co., started a foundry 
and machine «hop on Delarrare street south 
of the Union track, making small castings 
and sawing machines. Spotts li Thompson 
started a foundry near the same place in 
1S59, but both establisments were shortly 
afterward burned. The Hoosier Stove 
Foundry was built in ISGl, by Cos, Lord &; 
Peck, on Delaware street and Pogue's run, 
and was operated by tbera for two or three 
years and then discontinued. It passed into 
the hands of A. D. \Voud in 1S67, and is 
DOW carried ou by him. Ruschaupt ic Co. 
built a large foundry and machine shop on 
South Meridian street in Itioj, but as they 
soon afterv/ard became interested in the 
Eagle Machine Work?, the establishment 
was vacated, and is now used by the Car- 
penter's Association. Frink i .Moore start- 
ed the Novelty V\'orks in ISOO, for the man- 
ufacture of small castings, and have done 
a good business. A foundry was started 
in 1803, on East Market street, by some one. 
(unknown to the writer,) and has since 
mainly been doing railroad work. B. F. 
Hetheriugton li, Co. started a foundry and 
machine shop on south Delaware street in 
ISGtj or '67 and are still located there. 

Jos. W. Davis &, Co , started a brass 
foundry in 1S55, on south Delaware street, 
and has since added steam and gas-fitting, 
building up a good business. Garrett >s; 
Co., in I808, started a brass and bell foun- 
dry, on the railroad between Meridian and 
Pennsylvania streets, but failed a year or 
two afterward. 

In 1S56, Williamson & Haugh begin the 
manufacture of iron railings, and jail 
work, on Delaware street opposite the 
Court House, and at a subsequent date B. 
F. Haugh & Co. removed to south Penn- 
sylvania street, erecting new buildingsand 
continuing the business on an enlarged 

In 1857, E. C. Atkins began the manu- 
facture of mill and other saws, in the old 
City Foundry building on south Pennsyl- 
vania street, but being burned out in ISoS, 
he built a small shop near by, which was 
also burned in June, 18-yj. A new shop was 
then built on south Illinois street, a com- 
pany formed in 1803 or '01, and the busi- 
ness and buildings have since been greatly 
enlarged, and a heavy trade carried on. In 
18G7 Farley i Sinker built a shop and be- 
gan the manufacture of saws on south 

Pennsylvania street, and are doing a good 

Cottrell & Knight, in ISoo or '56, began 
the copper-smithing business on south Del- 
aware street, and have since built up a 
large trade. 

In addition to the foregoing, other es- 
tablishments exist or have existed, and the 
different railroads have nearly all had re- 
pair shops of greater or less extent at this 

The Indianapolis Rolling Mill was built 
by R. A. Douglass & Co., and a railroad 
track down Tennessee street constructed to 
it, in the summer of 1857, and work began 
October 29. The owners became involved 
in the spring of 185S, and for some time it 
was doubtful whether the works would ba 
continued, but the mill was purchased 
shortly after by a new company, with 
John .^I. Lord as president, and has since 
been much enlarged and profitably ope- 
rated. The company have purchased coal 
and iron mines in Clay county, have erect- 
ed a furnace to supply their mill with 
iron, and have also supplied coal for the 
use of the citizens. The success of the 
company stimulated other parties, and dur- 
ing the summer of 18G7, the White River 
Iron Company ivas formed, and a rolling 
mill was erected on White river, at the foot 
of Kentucky avenue, and put in operation 
in April of the present year, for the man- 
ufacture of bar iron, about $100,000 of 
capital being invested in the enterprise. 

Several pork and beef packing estab- 
lishments have been built since 18i7. — 
Rlythe & Hedderly began the first one, ou 
Fall creek race in the fall of 1847. It was 
afterward carried on by Dlythe & McXeely. 
Mansur &, Ferguson built one west of 
White river in 1550. It'was burned and 
rebuilt in 1858. Their packing establish- 
ment was located at the Madison depot. — 
Macy & McTaggart built one near Terre 
Haute railroad bridge in 1852. Gulick & 
Tweeds was built ju?t north of it in 1854-5. 
Allen .May's was built north-west of the 
city in 1855, and burned in 1858. Kingen 
& Co., built in 1SG4, on the river bank, the 
largest and best racking establishment in 
the country. It was of brick, five stories 
high, slate roofed, and finished in the best 
style. They were putting: mill machinery 
in it in the spring of 1SG5, intending to 
use it as a niill in summer and packing 
house in winter. It was filled at the time 
with lard and pork, on storage, when it 
was fired by an incendiary and utterly de- 
stroyed, involving a loss of .S-50.000 to the 
insurance companies, and being by far the 
largest and most destructive fire that ever 
occurred here. It was rebuilt in ISGG, but 
not 80 large orexpeusively as before. Want 


of spnce prevents further mention of the ! 1849, as ft fast day, on account of the ' 
different manufHCtories of the city. They i cholera. It -was generally observed as j 
are almost -wholly the growth of the past! such throujjhout the^ country. \ 

fifteen years, and with proper encourage- j On the ilth of February, 1^18, the as- ! 
ment and enterprize could be easily doubled ' sembly passed an act chartering telec^raph ' 
in the next ten years. ! companies, and on the "iCth, Henry O'Reilly ! 

The tirsl wholesale dry croods house in i advertised for subscriptions to build a line j 
the place was started in 1S47 by J. Little | from here to Dayton. It was constructed ' 
& Co., at 28 west Washington street. It , immediately afterward, and the first dis- 1 
•was burned May 14,1848, when owned by j patches sent to Richmond, May 12ih. The ! 
Little, Drum & Andersons. j first published dispatches appeared in 1 

1848. It was announced about the j the Sentinel .May tweniy-fourth. The of- ! 
middle of December, 1847, that Andrew j fice in the second story of N orris', now i 
Kennedy, an ex-member of Congress from j Hubbard's block, was crowded by exciied i 
Indiana, was ill of small-pox at the Palmer i natives, who doubted the genuineness of i 
House, and he died in January, 1848. i the invention; and the first operator, Isaac \ 
Many members of the legislature having : H. Kiersted, was greatly worried in es- j 
visited him before the disease was known, , plaining it. In I'^OO, Wado & Co built a ( 
ft panic ensued and the assembly adjourn- \ second line, which was consolidated with I 
ed. This act e.xcited much ridicule at the i the first in April, 1S;j3, and since that date j 
time, b t as a number of other cases occur- j other lines have beon built by companies ! 
red in January and February, the mirth soon I and railways, till twenty-nine wires now ! 
ceased, an*! panic seized the citizens. The ! centre at the ofSce in the third story of j 
conncilordereda general vaccination, estab- I Blackford's block, all under one corpora- ! 
lished a board of health, and authorized i tion, with Jno. F. Wallack as superintend- 1 
the construction of a hospital. A lot was | ent. Isaac H. Kiersted, J. W. Chapin, An- \ 
accordingly bought, material collected and i ton Schneider, Sidney B. Morris, J.F. Wil- | 
a contract made with Seth Bardwell for a ; son and J. F. Wallack, have be?n chief op- ' 
frame house, but before its erection the ■ erators and superintendents at this point. I 
disease and panic subsided, and a citizens' j A merchants' exchange was formed in 
meeting protested against further taxes for j June, for the reception of dispatches and i 
hospital purposes. The council in April i the transaction of business. C. W. Cady i 
gave the contractor $225 with the mate- ! being secretary, K. Ilomburgh, treasurer, j 
rial, to give up the contract; the lots were } It failed in a few weeks for lack of money. ! 
sold, and Hard well built the Indiana House, ' A citizens' meetins was called at College j 
on west .Market street out of the material. ; Hall in August, l!;j3, to revive it, and af- ! 
A citizens' nieeting in the summer of 1847, ! ler discussion it was resolved to form a I 
had recommended the building of a hospi- ; board of trade. N. McCarty, J. D. Defrees, j 
tal, and parties had then ofl'ered to advance ] Ignatius Brown, Fv. J. Gatling, A. H. 
the necessary funds. In July, 1S49, anolh-| Brown and J. T. Cox, were appointed to 
er case of s;nall-pox ocurred, and as the ■ prepare a constitution, circular and map, j 
cholera was prevailing severely on the i and solicit funds. D. Maguire was elected 
river, another first class panic ensued. A i president, J. L. Ketcham, secretary R. B. i 
citizens' meeting recommended the cutting ; Duncan, treasurer. Funds were swbscribed 
of the dog fennel in the streets, and np- ' and a circular and map, prepared by Mr. i 
pointed a committee to quarantine the cars, Brovrn, were published and sent over the 
Beveral miles south of town, and remove • country, calling attention to the advanta- 
the cholera and small-pox patients who ges held by the city for manufacturing and 
might be on board. The plan was very j wholesaling. Active efforts contin'ied for 
brilliant, but failed for the want of a suf- | about two years, and did much good, but 
ficiently self-sacrificing committee. The i the interest died out, and the effort was 
board of health al«o recommended dog fen- j suspended. Tlie board was again revived 
nel mowing, general sanitary precautions, ; in ISotJ, and for two years actively disseai- 
nnd the erection of a hospital, 'i'he mow- i inated information concerning the city. — 
ing was acconiingly done, but the dogfen- | The esthblishment of the rolling mill here 
nel was foumj to be wor.^e when cut than j was owing to its efloris. It again stis- 
whcn standing. This recommendation hav- | pended for want of funds. In 1804, the 
ing failed, no hospital was erected, and chamber of commerce was formed. T. B. 
but few sanitary measures taken. Many I Elliott, (succeeded in 18C5by W. S. Pierce.) 
German emigrants were arriving at that ! president, Jehiel Barnard, secretary, and 
time, and the first fatal case of cholera hap- i has since continued operations at its office 
pened among them, July 18, 1S45, and sev- \ in Vinton's block, though not supported as ! 
eral of them subsequently died. The Pres- i it should be. The merchants and manu- ) 
ident appointed the first Friday of . -August, 1 facturers' association was formed in the 



spring of 18GS, ' ^ith ohjecis substautially 
similar to the old board of trade, and open- 
ed an ofHce at 16 south Meridian street. 

A new engine was demanded by tbe 
Relief Company, and subscriptions being 
scanty, the Council ordered an election in 
June, for a special tax to buy one. The 
decision was i. gainst it, as also at another 
election in July, ordered for the same ob- 
ject. Tiie first forc-ign paper published 
here, the Indiana Vol/ctblatt, a democratic 
weekly journal, edited and published by 
Julius Euilticher, appeared from an office 
at Temperance Hall, in September, and 
has since been regularly issued under the 
control of Mr. Bocttichor. It is now pub- 
lished at IGG east Washington street. 

The companies commanded by Captains 
Lander and McDougall liaTing returned 
from Mexico, a procession and barbecue 
in their honor took place, October Jth, in 
the woods where the Soldiers' Home was 
afterwards located. Senator Ilannegan, 
Thomas J. Henley and others, were the 

The Central Plunk Road Company was 
formed in November, contracts let May, 
1840, and the road finished from Plaintield 
to Greenfield, in .\pril, ISjl, on the old 
National road, which, with its bridges, 
was taken by the company. Gates were 
located at the east and west ends of Wash- 
ington street, and tolls charged on the 
bridge. Citizens' meetings were held, de- 
nouncing this action on the part of the 
Company, and the Council finally procured 
the removal of the eastern gate, by releas- 
ing the Comoany from all liability for 
improving Washington street. 

The railroads being desirous to connect 
their several depots by rail, the Council, 
on the 20th of Decembsr, prescribed by 
ordinance the conditions on which they 
might lay the present Union track, and 
in the folliwing August the Comp?.nies 
formed the Union Piailroad Company, and 
laid the track in 1850. 

18-19. The street improvement or- 
dered in 1817-8, bad caused a debt of 
about ?6,000, and William Eckert, Presi- 
dent of the Council, ordered an election 
June 9th, to authorize a special tax of ten 
cents to pay it. Two hundred and fifty- 
eight votes were cast, and the ta.x carried 
by eleven majority. The people grumbled 
greatly that the ta.-c was now torty-five 
cents on the one hundred dollars. H. C. 
Newcomb was elected .Mayor at the .\pril 
election, succeeding Samuel Henderson, 
the first incumbent of that office. The 
population this year was found to be G,oOO. 

Much improvement was taking place, 
three hundred houses were supposed to 
have been built, shops and factories were 

started, and steam engines were at last 
made here. 

The Central Medical College, a depart- 
ment of the Indiana Asbury University, 
was organized during the summer, with 
J. S. Bobbs, Richard Curran, J. S. Harrison, 
George W. .Mears, C. G. Downey, L. Dun- 
lap, .\. II. Raker and D. Funkhouser as 
Professors, and began its first session, 
November 1st, (lasting foi'.r months.) in 
Matthew Little's twostory brick dwelling, 
south-east corner East and Washington 
streets, which had been fitted up as the 
College Buildings. Twenty or thirty stu- 
dents were in attendance the first session, 
and several were graduated in March, 
1850, President Simpson delivering the 
diplomas. Annual sessions were held for 
two or three years, when the institution 
was discontinued. The Assembly, Janu- 
ary 21, 1S50, authorized the sale of one 
acre of University Square, at its appraised 
price, to Asbury Uuiversit}-, for the build- 
ings of the Central Medical College, but 
the selected acre being appraised in .April 
at ?u,5*jG, the price was thought to be too 
high, and opposition arising to the sale, 
it was abandoned. 

The Court of Common Pleas of Marion 
county was organized, and began its first 
session, on the second Monday of July, 
1849, under a special act of . the {irecediug 
session, Abram A. Hammond being first 
judge and ex-officio clerk. He was after- 
wards succeeded by Edward Lander, who 
served till the Court was abolished, in 
1851-2. About fifty cases were on the 
docket at the first term. The present 
Court of Common Pleas was established 
by the revised laws of 1852, Levi L. Todd 
being elected by the people first Judge, in 
.\ugust, 1852. His successors since have 
beeu Sam'l Corey, David Wallace, J no. Co- 
burn, Charles A. Ray and Solomon Blair. 

The Widows and Orphans Society was 
organized early in December, 1849. The 
receipts for the first year were ^^1^3. 16, 
expenses S9S.30. It has beeu mainly 
sustained by private contributions, and 
by fairs and exhibitions held for its bene- 
fit, and has steadily grown in usefulness 
and importance. Two lots in Drake s ad- 
dition were donated to the Society by 
.\lleu May, and a third bought in 1852. 
A neat brick building was erected on the 
property in 1855, at a cost of about S3, 000, 
and the atTairs of the society have been 
successfully administered to the piresent 
date. The thanks of the community are 
due to the noble women who struggled 
against every disadvantage in the incep- 
tion of this great charity, and direct and 
sufficient aid should be annually given 
them by the city government. For the last 



two or three years small appropriations ' Chapel, for about S16,000, and a church 

have been annually voteJ to the Society 
by the City Council. 

18 5 0. An earthquake, w Inch was felt 
all through the west and scuh, occurred 
at 8 o'clock A. M. on the 4th of April, 
shaking the buildings. 

will shortly be erected there by that con- 
gregation, at a cost of seventy-livo or 
eighty thousand dollars. 

ISol. The Toledo Theatrical Com- 
pany, under Mr. Shires as manager, wish 
H. A. Perry, Robert Ri;xton, Mrs. Coleman 

The City Treasury receipts for the year I Pope and other good actors, ga^ve a series 
ending April '2.3th, were S'J.327, expend!- j of dramatic perl'ormances, January 7-'Jo, 
tares S7,-5-'i4. The total taxables for 1850 | in Masonic Hall, and though sr.dly embar- 
amouuted to $'2,3'26,18J. The school fund | rassed by lack of scenery and stage room, 
was slowly accinniiliUing, amounting to j did themselves credit, and drew large and 
S3. 29-3, the receipts for the year being | enthusiastic audiences. 
$2,38-3. Polls, 1,243, ai\ increase of 400 The Indianapolis G;is Light and Coke 
over last year. The population, as shown I Co., (originated by John J. Lockwood,) was 
by the census la October, was 8,097, an j incorporated by the assembly in February 
increase of 1,530 over 1849. The wealth j 1851, for thirty years, with i52O,00i) capi- 
had increased about 5300,000. There j tal. Stock books were opened March 6th, 

were twenty-five physicians, thirty law- 
yers, arid one hundred and twenty indus- 
trial establishments. 

Governor Crittenden and suite arrived 

and on the 2Glh the Company organized 
with D. v. Culley, President; U". \V. 
Wright, Secretary and H. V. Barringer, 
'uperintendeut. The City Council, by or- 

May 28th, on invitation of Gov. Wright, 1 dinance, March 3d, gave the Company the 
and a Union meeting was hcM in the j exclusive right, for fifteen years, of sup- 
State House yard on the 2yih, when reso- '■ plying the city and iis inhabitants with 
lutions were passed, and sj-eeches made j gas, prescribing the conditions on which 
by the Governors and others. I pipes might be laid in the streets, and 

A union funeral service was held July ! stipulating that gas should be furnished 

27th, by all denominations and parlies, for 
President Taylor, Rev. E. R. Ames deliv- 
ering an able eulogy on the deceased 


Many German emigrants were arriving 
this year, and brought the chtdera with 

for the street lamps at the price then pre- 
vailing in Cincinnati. In July the Com- 
pany bought a lot on Pennsylvania street, 
south of Rogue's run, and built a retort 
house and gas-holder during the fall. 
Mains were also laid on Penns} Ivania and 

them, nine or ten of them dying during j Washington streets. The works were tin- 
the summer. There was no panic, how- j ished in December, and gas was first fur- 
ever, f.nd the disease did not spread. i nished for consumption on the lOih of 

The Christian Church was built during ; January, 1852. In the following April 
this and the next year, on the south-west | 7,700 feet of pipe had been laid. Thirty 
corner of Delaware and Ohio streets. 'bushels of coal were daily consumed, 

The Indiana Slatesjuan, a weekly, demo- j 675 burners employed and 116 consumers 
cratic paper, was first issued September ; using gas. Before the construction of the 
4th, by Fllis & Spann, from the old i gas works, the only building in the city 
Sentinel ofiice, on Illinois street. It was j lighted by gas was the .Masonic H.aII, 
merged with the Sentinel in September, I which was furnished with a gas-making 
1852. j apparatus, and the first street lamps in th.e 

The Indiana Female College was or- | city were the two in front of the hall, 
ganized, and the house and lot on the | supplied from its njiparatus. For two or 
south-east corner of Ohio and Meridian \ three years the Company was unsuccess- 
etreets purchased during the summer, and j ful, the machinery and works being de- 
the school opened there in the fall by Rev. fective in construction and the Siiperin- 
T. A. Lynch. His successors in the Pres- tendent inexperienced in the business, 
idency of the institution have been Rev. An additioniil sum was then expended in 
Charles Adams, G. W. Ho-s, B. H. Hoyt, | modifying the works. Christopher Brown 
0. M. Spencer and W. H. Demolte. The j was appointed Superintendent, an in- 
college was suspended in 1859, but in 1865 j creased pressure was put on the mains, 
the old lot and buildings were sold, and | more gas was consumed, and the Company 
the lot and buildings of the former .Mc- began to prosper. The mains were exten- 
Lean Female Seminary bought and used ! ded on additional streets, and fuitherira- 
from that dale by the institution. The i provements were made in the works. But 
Bchool was well conducted and prosperous, > little gas was used by the city until within 
but was closed with the June term, 1808, \ the last ten years. The first lunps were 
and in that month the house and lot was i put up on Washington street, between Me- 
purchased by the trustees of Wesley | ridian and Pennsylvania streets, in the fall 



of 1S53, and were supplied with gas it the 
expense of the property-holders on tbnt 
square, the tax for gns lighting having 
been defeated at the elections iu lt^ol-2. 
Tl'.e first contract for supplying street 
lamps was made by the Council and Com- 
pany in December, l^bi, and portions of 
Washington and some of the adjacent 
Btreeta were lit iu 1S>5. In 18-38-9, a 
large increase was made in the length of 
streets lighted and number of lamps, and 
the increase has been steady since that 
date. In May, IbGO, there were eight and 
one-half miles of street lit, two hundred 
nnd sixty-five lamps were used and eighty- 
five more were being erected. At present 
twenty-one miles of streets are lit and 
nearly nine hundred lamps have been 
erected, only seven hundred and fifiy of 
which are used, the Council having re- 
cently decided to light only those at the 
street corners. The lamp posts and lamps 
are put up at the expense of the property- 
holders and kept in repair by the city. 
Twenty-three miles of mains aod nearly 
geveuty-five miles of service pipe are now 
in use. There are one thousand five hun- 
dred and fifty consumers. Extensive 
changes, additions and repairs have 
been made to the works, and iliey have 
also been largely extended. In 18G3, the 
Company built, on Delaware street, a new 
rcceivirig reservoir, or gas-holder, of 
about 30O,(j00 cubic feet capacity, at a cost 
of about $120,000. The re:ort house, which 
originally held six retorts, now has fifty- 
five. The average daily production of gas 
at present is about 175,000 feet. 

No rule was at first adopted as to the 
number and position of street lamps on 
each square, and some trouble and irregu- 
larity resulted from it, but on tlie 12th of 
February, 1859, the Council fixed the 
number at four to each square, jjlaced at 
equal diagonal distances, and so arranged 
that the cj^posite street corners should be 

As the charter granted, March 3, 1851, 
for fifteen years, by the city, would ex- 
pire March 4. 1800, tlie Council, in .May, 
18G5, ordered the clerk to advertise for 
proj'osals to light the city for twenty years 
with gas. It was done, and on the 4th of 
September the Gas Company submitted the 
only proposition tha'. was received. They 
had been charging private comsumers 
§4.50 per 1,000 feet, and the city S20.00 
per lamp, with S8.44 per annum for light- 
ing and cleaning. They now offered to 
supply the city and citizens, for the en- 
suing twenty years, at 53.48 per thousand 
feel, light, and clean the lamps at $5.40 
each per aniium, all payments to be in 
currency at par, free of Government tax, 

which was to be paid by coosumers. Tliey 
also claimed the exclusive riglit, under 
Legislative charter, to supply the citizens 
for five years lunger with gas. The com- 
mittee on gas m:i.le long reports in .July 
and October on the subject, setting forth 
that eighteen miles of mains had been 
laid, five hundred and thirty three lamp 
posts erected and one hundred more being 
erected; that the gas used by private par- 
ties in ]8tj4 amounted to about 17,000,1)00 
feet, and by the city to 4,500,000: that 
one thousand two hundred meters were in 
use, and 00,000 bushels of coal consumed. 
Tiiey considered the question of cc'^t and 
price here and elsewhere, and submitted a 
proposition that the Company be given the 
contract for fifteen years at $3.00 per one 
thousand feet, and the lamps at ?28.S0 
per year, consumers to pay tax, and tlie 
city to light and clean the lamps — a gas 
inspector was recommended. They also 
denied the Company's asserted right to 
continue for five years longer than the pe- 
riod fixed by the original contract with the 
city. It was afterward proposed to capi- 
talize the property of the Company at 
8350,000, the city to divide profits above 
15 percent., and on the 22d of January, 
18Gt), ft gas ordinance was passed granting 
the company the right for twenty years on 
a capital of S350,000. The Company, on 
the 31st of January, declined to accept it, 
and said they would continue to fuiuish 
gas to all consumers at $3.75 per thousand 
by actual measurement, consumers to pay 
tax. Matters remained in this state till 
the 5th of March, when R. B. Catherwood 
& Co., offered to take the charter for thirty 
years, with the exclusive privilege, and 
furnish gas at $3.00 per thousand feet, 
the city to contest the claim of the old 
Company. In response to this oft'er the 
Gas Committee, on the 12th of .March, re- 
ported an oidinance giving Catherwood & 
Co., or •' the Citizens' Gas Light and Coke 
Co.," the exclusive right for twenty years, 
reserving the right of the city to buy the 
works after ten ^"ears, and all profits over 
15 per cent, on the capital were to be di- 
vided equally between the Company and 
city. The new Company was to test the 
claim of the old Company by suit. The 
capital was to be appraised every five 
years, and the Company was to fix the 
rate on the first of .March annually for 
I gas, at not over $3.00 per thousand feet. 
They were to extend mains whenever 
I fifteen burners were proniised to the square, 
i and lay them and repair streets at their 
I own cost. The company were to insure 
j the works Bgainst fire, and forfeit their 
charter if the conditions were not fulfilled. 
While this ordinance was pending, the old 



comp;\ny got alarmed, and came forward 
with atioilier proposition, oCTfring to fur- : 
nish gi\s for twenty years .it $3 per 1,000 . 
feet, 10 make no ciiarge for meters, to 
charge only actual cost of pipe couneciions, ' 
to extend mains wucnevtr lifteen burners i 
to the square were promised, &c. This 
offer was accepted, and on the 19th of; 
March the council passed an ordinance I 
rechartering the old coropany for twenty ' 
years from March 4, Itti'i. Good gas was ' 
to be furnished at §0 per 1,000 feet, with ! 
no charge for meters, the company to lay \ 
mains when fifteen burners to the square I 
were promised, and make all pipe counec- j 
tions at actual cost. The price of gas was j 
to be reduced if improvements in its man- 
ufacture were adopted; all streets to be' 
repaired when torn up to lay pipes, and ' 
damages paid by the company in case of J 
injury to any party. The city was to ! 
light and clean the lamps, and have the i 
quantity and quality of the gas tested. I 
The company accepted this charter on the j 
21st of .^Iarch, and has since been acting i 
under it. j 

It was found, shortly after the new con- j 
tract was made, that the city gas bills were ! 
rapidly increasing under the meter-meas- • 
urmeut system; and on iijvestigation, in 
the spring and summer of 1SG7, it was I 
ditcovered that the city had been paying ! 
for sixteen or twenty lamps beyond the ■ 
actual number, and for all of them whether 1 
lighted or not, and that by defective burn- j 
ers and too heavy pressure, more gas was j 
cousurjed than was necessary — nearly! 
G,0oO.U00 feet having been burned in elev- j 
en months in 18'Jo-7. The committee ' 
recommended the election of a gas inspec- j 
tor, ar.d George II. Fleming was chosen to i 
that oSce in the spring of 1S68, and fur- | 
nished with a set of instruments at a cost j 
of SbOO. Rules were adopted for testing i 
quantity, quality and pressure of the j 
gas, and the number of hours the lamps i 
were to be lighted. It was also resolved 
to light the lamps only on the street cor- ( 
ners, and to bhut oft' the gas at midnight. 
By this action the cost to the city has been j 
reduced from nearly S-lO^OoO to little over 
§20,000 annually. ' | 

The original capital of the gas company I 
was $"20,000; but the works and mains, as ; 
first built, cost $27,0("i0. They were rebuilt j 
in lSo*j, at an additional expense of S30,- i 
000 — making the total outlay, before the i 
works proved proti table, about iJ7,0()0. ' 
From that time the enterprise has been ; 
successful. Few or no dividends have been i 
declared, the profits ail being devoted to 
the additions, repairs and e.xtensions of' 
(he property; the works being again en- ; 
lirely rebuilt in IfcoO, and an additional ; 

gas-holder of 7.5,000 feet capacity built. 
Three reservoirs, one of 20,00'>, one of 7 .'.,- 
OuO and one of 300.000 cubic feet capacity 
are now in use; 700 bushels of coil are 
daily used in making gas, the average 
product being 17-3,000 feet. In the spriiig 
of IS'jS the company built a three-story 
brick office on the north-east corner of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland streets, at a 
cost of about $12,000. The present value 
of the property and franchise of tlie com- 
pany is overS-JOO.OOO. D. V. Culley, D. S. 
Beatty, E. J. Peck and S. A. Fletcher, Jr., 
have been the presidents, and H. V. Bar- 
ringer. Christopher Brown, E. Bailey and 
H. E. Stacey superintendents. 

The State Board of .Agriculture was char- 
tered by the Assembly, February 1-kh, ISol, 
and w,is organized .May 27 with a board 
of directors. Gov. \Vright being chosen 
president, John B Dillon, secretary, and 
K. Mayhew, treasurer. Tiie first fair was 
held here on the military grounds October 
l'J-2-3, 1852 — l,.3lJ5 entries wera mide, a 
large crowd of visitors attended, many of 
whom experienced difficulty in procuring 
food and lodging, but the railways enabled 
most of the:u to come and return tlie same 
day. The citizens were then first aston- 
ished with the numberless side-shows, 
since so common, at such gatherings. Tlie 
fair of 1S53 was held October 11-13, at 
Lafayette; that of 1854 in October, at 
Madison. Those of 1855, '0, '7 and 'S at 
Indianapolis. Receipts, respectively, SH,- 
000, $13,000, 514,600 end $11,000; that 
of 1859 at New Albany, receipts $-S,000. 
Those of 18(J0, '2, '3 and '4, were held at 
Indianapolis, receipts $11,000, $4,2C0, $S,- 
OuO, $10,000. That of 1805 at Ft. Wayne, 
receipts $10,500. That of ISOG at Indianap- 
olis, and of lSo7 at Terre Haute. No fair 
was held in 18G1. It will bo seen that the 
most successful fairs have been held at 
tliis point, and the fact would be still more 
marked by the comparison of the entries 
made at each. The most successful fair 
was that of 1857, both in receipts and in 
number of entries. The fairs liere until 
1860, and during the war, were held on the 
military grounds, which were fitted up by 
the Board and citizens for the purpose. 
Those held elsewhere were on grounds fur- 
nished and fitted up by the citizens of the 
respective cities. In 1850 the Board de- 
termined to locate the fair permanently at 
this point and procure larger grounds. 
Proposals were invited, and during the 
winter and following spring much compe- 
tition arose between tlie partizans of dif- 
ferent sites adjoining the city, and seme 
ill feeling was caused. The Otis grove, 
north of the city, was bought by the board 
and railway companies in 18iJ0, and ex- 



pensively fitted up during the summer, 
and the lirst fair held there in October. 
It was not. very successful pecuniarily; 
many of the premiums were left unpud, 
and for a number of years the board vras 
much embarrassed fiuancially, being le- 
lieved at last by State appropriations and 
damages received from the general govern- 
ment. The fair of ISol v^-as announced, 
but the war intervening, it was aban- 

With the first rush of troops to this 
point, the fair ground was occupied, cal- 
led Camp Morton, and used at intervals 
afterward until the capture of Fort Don- 
alson when it was selected as a prison 
camp, and used as such till after the close 
of the war — having, often, 5,000 inmates. 
Its use as a camp and prison injured the 
grounds exceedingly and destroyed nearly 
all the trees. It is now being improved, 
the city liaving voted Sv, 000 for that object : 
and when the improvements are completed 
will again be used by the board. The 
State fairs have all been alike in their es- 
sential features, and are now what they 
were at the beginning. Gov. Wright, Jos. 
Orr, A. C. Stevenson, G. D. Wagner, D. P. 
IloUoway, J. U. Williams, Stearns Fisher 
and A. D. Hararick have* been the presi- 
dents of the Society; and J. B. Dillon, W. 
T. Dennis, Ignatius Brown, "W. 11. Loomis 
and A .1. Holmes the secretaries. 

Kine hundred and fifty-five votes were 
cast at the city election, April 2Gth. H. C. 
Newcomb was elected mayor, but resigned 
November 7ih, and the council elected Ca- 
leb Scudder for the balance or the term. A 
tax of five cents wa.s authorized at the 
April election for the fire department and 
purchase of engines. 

Johu L'.. Gough made his first Tisit to this 
city in May, and gave a eeries of temper- 
ance lectures in Masonic Ilall. He has 
lectured here many times since before dif- 
ferent societies, but never equalled the 
impression he then made, when he was 
in his prime, and before his English trip 
injured his voice and manner. 

A violent storm of wind and rain oc- 
curred on the DJih of May, blowing down 
fences and trees, and prostrating the M. iSi 
I. II. R. car house, and on the 2'-'d a heavy 
hail-storm broke thousands of panes of 
glass. On the 28th of .May Gov. Reuben 
Wood, of Ohio, visited the city and was 
suitably received by the authorities. 

The papers in May stated that there 
were then two foundries, three machine 
shops, and a boiler factory in operation ; 
fifty steam engines had been built, and the 
manufacture of tiireshere had been commen- 
ced at the Washington foundry. Charles 
Mayer was also building a three-story bu- 

siness Louse with an iron front, the first 
one in the city. Au ''old resident," in 
a communication, asserts that ''nobody is 
crazy enough to think the city will have 
oO,000 inhabitants during tliis century." 
The receipts of the city treasury for the 
year ending May 1st, 1851, wereS10,515; 
expenditures the same; debt 55,407; school 
fund from last year S3,oOS, amount col- 
lected $2,851, expended S5.035 on build- 
ing; balance $221. The number of chil- 
dren in the city was ptcfed to be 2,12tj. 

W. .McK. Scott started the first com- 
mercial college here in March, 1851, 
continuing it for several years, and in Oc- 
tober 1851, he originated a library and 
reading room association. Rev. N. W. 
Camp, president, A. M. Hunt, secretary, 
and \V . McK. Scott, treasurer and librari- 
an ; but the enterprise lived only about a 
year. He also started the first real estate 
agency that had existed here for many 
years. Commercial colleges have been 
touiuied since that date by Bryant, Hayden, 
Gregory, Purdy, and others, graduating 
many young men for active business pur- 

It being propossd to light Washington 
street with gas, and to buy a town clock, 
a vote was taken September 13, lo author- 
ize a o-as tax of eight cents, and clock tax 
of one cent. The first was heavily de- 
feated, and the last authorized. It was 
, levied, and a Butncieiit fund having accu- 
I mulated, Jno. Moft'att was employed in 
April, 1853, to build the clock for SI, 200, 
and after much dissension as to where it 
I should be placed, it was located in Roberts' 
I Chapel steeple in 1854, and remained there 
[till July 1808, when it was removed and 
i put in charge of the chief fire engineer. 
I The first express otfice here was opened 
j September 15, by the Adams Express Co.. 
j the line being over the Madison road, and 
Blythe & Holland, agents, till December, 
1 when Charles Woodward was appointed. 
I He was succeeded a year or two after by 
i John H. Ohr, who held the ofBce till it was 
discontinued in March, 180S. Offices of 
Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, of the Uni- 
ted States Express, of the American and 
Merchants' Union have been established 
here at ditferent dates. Since the cons.)Ii- 
dation of the companies in March, 18G8, 
the Merchants' Union and American have 
been the only offices open here. 

The county agricultural society was 
formed in August, and held its first tairin 
October. Fairs have been held ncirly ev- 
ery year since with moderate success, do- 
inp' well when the State fairs were held 

On the 23.1 of September, twenty-two 
members of the First Presbyterian 



cliurcli formeJ the third church. Rev. Da- 
vid Stevi'nson wus CHlicd to the p'lstoraie 
Nov. 17. He has boea succeeded by Rev. 
Geo. Hccknian, and Rev. Robf. Sloss. The 
chiircli building on the corner of Illinois 
and Ohio street, was begun in 1852, and 
partly completed in May, 18.39, at a cost 
of about f"Jo.000 for house and lot. The 
towers have not j-ct Leeu built. Tiie cou- 
grea:ation occupied Colle:,e and Temperance 
Halls till January, Ibo-t, when they -went 
into the basement of the church, using it 
.till 1859. Tiie United Brethren Church 
was built during 1851-2, on the corner 
of Ohio and New Jersey streets. 

Washington street had formerly been 
planti.'d along portions of its sidewalks 
witli trees, but they liad gradually been 
cut away, and on the tirst of October the 
old locu.*t trees in front of the present Dun- 
lop corner, the last ones in the center of 
the city, wore cut down. 

Madame Anna Bisliop and Boclisa, tlie 
first noted musicians wlio visited the place, 
gave a concert at Masonic Hall, on the 24th 
of November. 

In November the experiment was tried 
of having markets at noon instead of at 
daylirrht, but it was abandoned after a 
short period. The weather in December 
and January was excessively cold. 

18 5.;. On the 10th of January a fire 
broke oat in the old frame and brick 
housc:^ er.tending e:ist of the Capital 
House !r) t!ie alley, utterly consuming 
them, r.i;d burning up nearly all the records 
in the I'ity Treasurer's oflice. The pres- 
ent buildings were erected there during 
the summ'ir and occupied in the fall. 

1*. J. Ash opened a theatre with a small 
company nt .Masonic Hnll, in February, 
butf;iilcd and discontinued shortly after- 

The Assembly, on the 20th December, 
1851, had invited Kossuth to visit the 
city, and at a subsequent public meeting, 
fifty citizens had been appointed a commit- 
tee of reception. They met him February 
2Gth, at Ciuoiunati, and on Friday, the 
27th, he arrived here via Madison, and 
was escorted by a procession across the 
muddy valley of Pogue's run to the State 
House, where he was welcomed as the 
gues': of the Slate by Governor V/righf, 
ami replied in an address of some length, 
to ihe vast crowd assembled in the yard. 
Th3 part3' '"'^^ quartered at the Capital 
Hou«e, (now the Senlind oCTice, ) then the 
best and largest hotel in the city. A re- 
ception was lield at the Governor's resi- 
dence at night. On Saturday he was re- 
ceived by the two houses of Assembly, 
and received delegations, and contribu- 
tions for Hungary. Sunday he attended 

Roberts Chapel and the Sunday schools. 
On .NIouday he received deleg.-i.tions and 
i contributions, and at night delivered a 
I long and ehiborate address, at .\Iasonic 
I Hall, before the society of "The Fricuiis of 
I Hungary." On Tuesday he left for Louis- 
ville, after collecting about SI, 000. 
I Dr C. G. McLean built, during this 
I summer, a three-story brick building, on 
I the corner of Nevi* i'ork and Meridian 
I streets, and opened the first session of the 
I McLean Female Seminary at that p":ace in 
I September; one hundred and fifty yiupils 
I were in attendance during the first year, 
and the school soon took high rank. 
Dr. McLean died in 18G0, and the school 
was continued until 1865, under Professor 
G. N. Todd, Professor Sturdevant, and 
others. It was then discontinued, anii 
the property bought by the Indiana Fe- 
male College, which was located there till 
June, 18iJS, when it was discontinued, and 
the property sold to the Wesley Chapel 
congregation for about SiG.OOO, as the 
site for their new Church. 

The North Western Christian Univer- 
sity was chartered by the Assembly, Feb., 
1852. A meeting of the commissioners 
j was held June 22, and stock subscriptions 
reported, amounting to §75.000. Twenty- 
one directors, with Ovid Butler as Presi- 
dent, were elected July 14th. A site of 
I tv.'cnty acres of fine woodland was donated 
j to the institution by Ovid Butler. Plans 
I by Wm. Tinsley, architect, were adopted, 
and the contracts were let in July, 1853, 
I for the west wing of the building. It wa3 
erected in 1854-5, at a cost of S27,000, 
and dedicated November 1st, 1855, by 
} Horace Mann, who delivered an able ad- 
I dress on the occasion. John Young, J. R. 
Challen and A. II. Benton were the first 
Professors. John Young, S. K. Ho.shour 
and A. R. Eeuton have been the Presi- 
dents. The institution has been prosper- 
ous under an able corps of instructors. 
Three societies, Pythonean, .Maihesian 
and Threskomathian, are sustained by the 
students. Pupils of both sexes are in at- 
tendance at the institution. The College 
buildings are still incomplete. 

The City Assessor returned the popula- 
tion of the city in July, at 10,812. The 
fourth of July 'was celebrated with more 
display than usual. The Sabbath School 
procession, embracing about two thousand 
'children and teachers, marched to the 
State House square. The firemen and 
military, comprising the City Guards, the. 
Marion", We=!iern, liidependent Relief and 
Invincible fire companies, and the 0. K. 
bucket comj)any, headed by Downie a 
band, (which had been formed in August, 
IsoO,) also paraded the streets, with the 




— ( 

fire erigmc3 and hose reels fancifully dpc- 

The first balloon ascension here, was 
innde nt 4 o'clock p. m., July 29th, at the 
Stnte House square, (v,-hicli had been er- 
closcd for the purpose,) by Win. PauUiu. 
The balloon rose to a great height, re- 
ronining above the cknuls for an hour, and 
lighting in the evening near Greenfield. 
At night, Dichl of Cincinnati, gave a fine 
exhibition of fire-works inside the en- 
closure. The shovr was gotten up by Jas. 
H. McKernan, and the ascension was wit- 
nessed by over 15,000 persons, nearly all 
of whom held curb-stone tickets. Since 
that time balloon ascensions have bc6n 
made here by Pusey, Bannister, Bellman, 
and a number of others. 

Much improvement was made in the 
place this year, and many buildings 
erected or begun ; among these were the 
Bates House, Morris (now the Sherman) 
House, McLean's Seminary, three brick 
school houses, Lafuyette and Union depots, 
Terre Haute shops, Washington foun Iry, 
Sinker's boiler factory, Osgood i. Smith's 
peg and last factory, GeisendorfF's woollen 
factory, Drew's carriage factory, Shella- 
barger's planing mill, .Macy's pork-house, 
Blake's Commercial Row, Blackford's 
building on Meridian street, snd others. 
The railroads were being actively con- 
structed, streets improved, and cisterns 
built for the fire departiaent, as voted for 
in October by a small majority. The first 
State and county fairs were held by the 
present societies, drawing large crov.-ds ; 
great conventions were also held during 
the summer, by the political parties. 

18 5 3. Among the side shows in atten- 
dance at theState fair, in October, 1852, had 
been Yankee Kobinson's atheaeum, or tent 
thcater,placed whereGallup'sbuilding now 
is, east of the State House. He returned 
here during the v. inter, and on the 21it of 
January opened in the Washington Hall, 
(which had been fitted with stage and rais- 
ed seats,) with the Alphonso troupe of vo- 
calists, the concert being a blind for the 
theatrical performance which followed. Af- 
ter ten days or two weeks, he announced 
himself as manager, and continued the 
performances till March 7th, drawing very 
gocd houses, and employii.g a good compa- 
ny; among them were Henry W. Waugh, 
J.' F. Lytton, D. W. Waugh, Robinson and 
his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Wilkens, 
and others. After Robinson left, PI. W. 
Brown opened the ball as a theater, with 
Sidney Wilkens and wife, Meehen, and 
others, forming a good stock company. The 
season lasted from July 1st to the 2Gtb, and 
Uncle Tom's Cabin was first represented 
here to crowded Louses. Sidney Wilkens 

again opened it as manager, oa the 10th of 
August, and continued for a short time with 
nearly the same company. Wilkcus was ■ 
an actor of considerable merit. l 

The first old settlers' meeting was held 
at the State house, January 31st,. Speeches 
were made, anccviotes of the early settle- 
ment related, and an organization effected 
with arrangements for annual meetings. 
These were subsequently held till 18tJ0, at 
Calvin Fletcher's and Jaraes Blake's, and 
ut the fair grounds, but were abandoned 
during the war, and have not since been 

The Odd Fellows had determined to build 
a grand lodge hall here, and during the 
winter had organized a stock company. — 
Subscriptions to about 5-^5,000 were taken 
by the grand and subordinate lodges and 
encampments, and by individuals, and in 
February the lot at the corner of Pennsyl- 
vania and Washington was bought for 
§17,0C0. A plan was adopted, afterward 
modified by F. Costigan, architect, and du- 
ring 1854-5 the present building was erect- 
ed on the site of the two-story brick and 
frame houses which had formerly occupied 
the lot. It cost about $30,000, and was oc- 
cupied in thesuramer of 1855, the city coun- 
cil room and city offices being on the sec- 
ond floor, where they remained till the 
present offices were occupied in Glenns' 
block, in May, 18^2. The'stylo of the hall 
is peculiar, probabl}' unlike any other on 
earth. Ilie lower tloor is occupied as bu- 
siness rooms, the second as oftices, and on 
the third are two large halls and ante- 
rooms, used by the ledges and encamp- 
ments, who occupy them each secular night 
of the week. Tlie house is stuccoed inside 
and out, and is surmounted by a dome, de- 
signed by H. A. Bohlen architect. The 
hall was dedicated, with appropriate cere- 
monies, .May 21, 1856* 

The dates of organization of the several 
lodges and encampments, and the names of 
their first officers arc as follows : 

Lodges — Centre No. 18, December 25, 
1844, Wm. Sullivan, N. G., E. B. Hoyt, sec- 
retary, J. B. McCbesney, treasurer; Phi- 
losenian, No. 44, July S, 1847, Hervey 
Brown, N. G., W. W. Wright, secretary, 
John J. Owsley, treasurer; Capital No. 
124, January 20, 1853, John D'.inn, N. G., 
Wra. Wallace secretary, Geo. F. .McGinnis, 
treasurer; Germania No. 129, January 24, 
1853, Chas. Coulon, N. G., Julius Boetti- 
cher, secretary, B. H. Mueller, treasurer; 
Encampments — Metropolitan No. o, July 
20, 1846, J. P. Chapman, C. P., Edwin Hed- 
derly, H. P., B. B. Taylor, secretary, A. C. 
Chrisfield, treasurer; Marion No. 35, March 
24, 1853, Obed Foote, C. P., J. K. Kn:rli.<h, 
H. P., A. Dereis, secretary, Geo. G. Holman, 



tT-c:isurer; Teutoniii No. 57, August 13, 
1?55, Geo. F. Meyer, C. P., Chap. Coulon, 
H. P., F. H. Tapkiug, secretary, Alex. 
Metzger, treisurer. 

A State convention of brass bands was 
held at Masonic Hall, February 2'J, under 
George B, Downie, as leader. Twelve or 
thirteen bands were present, and engaged in 
a contest for a prize banner, which was ta- 
ken b}' the New Albany band. A similar 
convention, eight or niue bauds being in 
attendance, was held at the same place, 
November '29, 1853, under C. W. Cottam, 
as leader. 

The taxing power of the council being 
restricted under the charter of 1S47, it was 
proposed in December, 1552, to adopt the 
general incorporation actof 1852, but much 
opposition arising, the project wns not 
pressed at that time. In March, 1S53, 
however, the council adopted the general 
net, and the city was governed under it 
till March, 1S57. Tiie elections were 
charged from April to May, and all the 
ofiicers and councilmen were elected annu- 
ally. 1450 votes were cast at the election. 
May 3d, under the new law. Caleb Scud- 
dcr being chosen mayor, Daniel B. Culley, 
clerk, A. F. Shortridge, treasurer, Matthew 
Little, assessor, Benj. I'ilbean, marshal, N. 
B. Taylor, attorney, Win. Hughey, street 
commissioner, and James Wood, engineer. 
The new otncors and council assumed their 
duties May 6th, and Joseph Little was 
elected first chief fire engineer. The re- 
ceipts of the cit}' for the year ending May 
1, 1S53, were i;iU,905, expenditures $7,030. 

The fire tax amounted to §2,093, ex- 
penses, $2,018; clock tax. 31,005, expenses, 
§18; school fund, §6,745. expenses, .§6,458, 
in building houses, etc. §S95 had f>een ex- 
pended for cisterns, five of which were 
finished, five in progress, and six others lo- 
cated. The council chamber was removed 
in June, from Hubbard's b'.ock to Dunlop's 
building, then lately finished, and in 1855, 
to Odd Fellows' Hall, then completed. The 
new city assessment in July, gave of per- 
gonal property. §1,239,507; real, §3,831,875; 
total, $5,131,682, and 1.450 polls. 35 per- 
sons paid tax on over .§20.000 of property, 
and 59 on from 10 to §20,000. Until July, 
the marshal was the only police officer in 
the city, but in that month he was author- 
ized to appoint a deputy. The council 
fixed the salaries of the officers in Septem- 
ber ; that of the mayor being §000 ; cl-rk, 
§600; marshal, $500; engineer, §800; 
Btreet commissioner, §400 ; clerk of mar- 
kets, §350; sexton, §80; deputy m.i.rshai, 
§400; councilman, each meeting, §2. 

The fourth Presbyterian church on Dela- 
ware and Market streets, was contracted 
for in May, and built during this and next 

year, though not finally finished till within 
a few years past. The third Presbyterian 
church, on Illinois and Ohio streets, was 
also begun this year, but not completed 
for several years after. The towers are 
now being built. The tower of the fourth 
Presbyterian church, about one hundred 
and forty feet in height, is entirely of 
brick, the only one so built, and is the 
tallest brick structure in the city. The 
outside of the church is st\iccoed. These 
were the finest and most expensive church 
edifices in the city when erected, but 
have since been surpassed by the first and 
second churches. 

John, an old and respectable 
colored citizen, was arrested. May 2l5t, as 
the fugitive slave of Pleasant Ellington, 
and taken before William Sullivan, U. S. 
Commissioner. The case caused great ex- 
citement. Crowds thronged the court 
room, writs of habeas corpus were issued, 
and successful efforts made to delay the 
case to get evidence. Freeman, in the 
mean time, had to lay three months in the 
jail, guarded by special marshals, while 
his attorney went south to gel witnesses. 
Several planters came on from Georgia, 
proved his freedom, and on the 27th of 
August he was released. This case had 
no small influence on political matters af- 
terward, and made many earnest oppo- 
nents of slavery among those who had 
been formerly indifferent on the subject. 

The fourth of July was celebrated in 
the forenoon in the usual manner, by six- 
teen Sabbath schools, at the .State House; 
by four fire and hose companies, with the 
Franklin band, in the afternoon, and by 
the Turners in the evening, south of the 

A temperance excitement arose during 
the summer, and out-door meetings were 
held on tiie corners, and in front of the 
saloons, during July, August and Septem- 
ber. A ccnmittee was appointed in the 
last month, to wait on the sellers, and re- 
ported forty-four then engaged in the bus- 
iness, most of whom liad agreed to quit it. 
The meetings were kept up at intervals for 
a year or two. 

All the omnibuses in the city having 
been bougiit by Garner & Plant, an omni- 
i bus company was formed on the 1st of 
August, and lines established from the 
depot, and along Washington street, but 
the enterprise was abandoned as unremu- 
nerative, after two or three months trial. 

A great fire, on the evening of the 10th 

of August, consumed the extensive .^tables 

on Maryland and Pearl streets, back of 

the Wright House, and other buildings 

I were repeat<^dly on fire, but by great ex- 

j ertions ou the part of citizens and fire- 



nien, the fire ■was confined to the stables I 

The Indianapolis Coal Co. was formed | 
in the spring, ■working ir.iiies in Clay | 
county, and the first loads of coal ■were j 
sent to our market during the snaimer 
and fall. Ilitlierto "wood had been the 
only fuel used here, being cheap and plen- 
tiful. The first horse-power ^vood-sawing 
machine was used on street during the 
fall, creating much excitement among the 

The first number of the Frie Press, a 
German independent ■\Teekly paper, ap- 
peared September od. and has beeu reg- 
ularly issued to the present time. It is 
owned hj a stock company, and has gene- 
rally supported the republican party. The 
company is also publishing the Daihj Tele-, the only German daily paper in the 

An auction stock exchange Tras started 
by AVilliam Y. M'iley, in October, ■weekly 
sales and meetings being held, but the 
city was too small to support such an en- 
terprise, and it was abandoned after sev- 
eral ■weeks trial. No subsequent etl'ort 
has been made to revive it. 

The famous dissenting Priest Gavazzi 
delivered t^wo eloquent lectures on the pa- 
pacy, at Masonic Hall, October 28-9, lo 
crowded houses. Lucy Stoi.e, at the same 
place, on the 24th, 25th and 26th of No- 
vember, and 3d of Pectiuber, delivered 
addresses on ■woman's rights and wrongs. 
Ole Bull gave his flr.^t concert here, in 
the .s«me hall, on the Oih of December, in 
company wiih Maurice Strakosch and the 
now world-renowned Adalini Patti, then a 
child of twelve or thirteen years of age. 
Ole Dull, since that time, has given sev- 
eral concerts here, the last being in Feb- 
ruary, IbGS. During Christmas week, W. 
H. Howard gave several theatrical per- 
formances, which he terminated by run- 
ning off and leaving his company unpaid. 

Much improvement had taken place in 
the city during the summer and fall, and 
it was s'.ipposed that c'oOO.OUO had been 
expended in the erection of houses. 

18 54. The Y'oung Men's Christian 
Association was organized on the 21st of 
March, and has since steadily and aucccs- 
fuUy pressed forward in a useful work. It 
made efforts to collect a library, and from 
1855 to the present time, has given, each 
winter, a series of lectures by distinguished 
persons. Rooms have been rented, an 
agency oiTice opened, a city missionary ap- 
pointed, and sabbath schools organized un- 
der its direction. 

2012 votes were cast at the city election 
on the 1st of May. The oiiicers elected 

will be found in the table heretofore ]iub- i 
lished. A great storm occurred .May 13. ■ 
blowing down trees, fences and llobiiison's \ 
atheneum tent, injuring several persons in ; 
the audience. Robinson, during the sum- i 
mer and fall, fitted up the third story of \ 
Kiliolt's building, on the corner of .Mary- ' 
land and Meridian streets, and commenced : 
the theatrical season in the fall, ending i 
April 14, 1855. The company was unu- i 
sually good, comprising R. J. .Miller, Yan- j 
kee Beirce, Yankee Robinson, F. A. Tannv- : 
hill, McWilliams. J. F. Lytton, H. W. and ' 
D. W. Waugh, Mrs. Robinson, .Mrs. Beirce, 
Miss Mary .Mc^Villiams, and others. He 
introduced Miss Susan Donin to un India- 
napolis audience. She had two encage- 
menis during the season, and aroused great 
interest among the drama-loving part of 
the community. She was succeeded by 
Maggie Mitchell and J. P. Adilams. 

The marshal was the only police ollicer 
until July, 1853, when he was authorized 
to appoint a deputy, but on the 14th of 
September of this year, the council estab- 
lished a police force of fourteen men, with 
ja captain; Jefl'erson Springsteen being 
I chosen the first chief. This force was con- 
' tinned till December 17, 1855, when the 
} ordinance was repealed, and the whole 
squad and the deputy marshal discharged: 
the marshal again being left the only po- 
I lice officer in ilic city. The repeal arose 
I from the general discontent at the expense 
I attending the maintenance of the force, 
; and at the conduct of the police in en- 
'. forcing the liquor law. Conliicts had oc- 
! curred immediately after the law took ef- 
i feet, between the Germans and the police, 
I and on the 1st of August, an attempt to 
j make an arrest on east Washington street 
I resulted in a riot, in Ivhich several of the 
j Germans were shot. A citizens' meeting, 
held immediately afterward, at the court 
I house, sustained the police, proffered the 
j aid of one hundreil special piolicemen in 
I each ward, and determined on the enforce- 
I ment of the law, and preservation of the 
' peace. The council also commended the act 
j of the police. The ill feeling gradually 
I subsided, but the general discontent over 
i the matter resulted at last in the discharge 
I of the force. For a month or two aftor- 
I ward, the streets were much disturbed by 
! noisy rioters, among whom (as it was 
i charged at the time,) were a number of 
; ev-policemen, who tlius evinced their de- 
I sire for re-employment, and demonstrated 
! its necessity. The papers soon asked for 
I another force, and the council, on the 21st 
i of January, 185G, created one of ten men, 
I one to each ward and three at large, ■with 
! a captain ; Jesse M. VanBlaricuni being 
i chosen chief. This force continued till 



after the May election, when the new 
(leDjocratic council discharged it, and by 
ordinance allowed tlie city marshal to ap- 
point one policeman to each ward, with a 
captain; Charles G. Warner being selected 
for the post. Tlie republicans repealed 
this ordinance, May 18, lS-j7, and passed 
another, by which the council elected seven 
policemen and a captain ; A. D. Rose be- 
ing choien. Two additional policemen at 
large v^erc appointed in ISoS, and Samuel 
Lefever elected captain. A. D. Rose suc- 
ceeded in 18.39. The force was increased 
M.iy 11, ISGl, to two men from each ward, 
and on tlie 2d of July, ISiJl, was fixed by 
new ordinance at fourteen men and a cap- 
tain; A. D. Hose retaining the post. He 
held it till October, and then entered the 
army, being succeeded by Thos. A. Ram- 
sey. The two day policemen were dis- 
charged in November. John R. Cotton 
was chosen chief in .May, 1SG2. Two day 
patrolmen were again ad'led, and the men 
first uniformed at the expense ef the citj-. 
Thos. D. Amos was chosen chief, May 19, 
1803, and the force increased to one lieu- 
tenant, seven day and eighteen night pa- 
trolmen. D. M. Powell succeeded as chief, 
May 2-3, 1803. During the fall much trou- 
ble was experienced iu preserving the 
peace, in consequence of the great number 
of rowdies in the city, and on the 4th of 
December a new ordinance was passed re- 
organizing the force. On the 4th the 
mayor was authorized to appoint detect- 
ives, and on the 21st the military authori- 
ties were asked to detail guards to assist 
the police. The request was granted, and 
until after the war a strong guard mate- 
rially aided in preserving order in and 
around the city; the guard headquarters 
being at the police office. A new ordi- 
nance fixing police districts, was passed 
March 21, 1S'J4, and amended May 9ih, 
and Samuel A. Cramer elected chief. On 
the third of October, twenty-six special po- 
licemen were added, during ilie 6tate fair. 
Complaints being made of the insufficiency 
of the force, the council, on the othof De- 
cember, 18tJ4, authorized an addition of six- 
teen men until the second Tuesday in May, 
1SG5, and raised the chief's salary to ;51,- 
500. The pay of the men was also in- 
creased once or twice during 18o3 and 
1SG4, being finally fixed at §2.50 and $3.00 
per day. Jesse VanHlaricura was chosen 
chief in tlie spring of IS'j.j, with two lieu- 
tenants, nine day and eifrlueen night pa- 
trolmen, tv/o detectives, and sixteen special 
men under his command. He served till 
April, Ifcot), when 1 hos. S. Wilson was elect- 
ed chief, and still holds the office. The 
force has been maintained for the last 
three or four years at an annual cost of 

$2-3,000 or §30,000, and now consists of 
about thirty men. 

In September, 1SG5, .Mr. A. Coquillard 
organized a merchants" police force for the 
patrol of the business squares along Wash- 
ington street, and on the IGth of Oc- 
tober the council recognized the force, 
granting it police powers. A. D. Rose 
took the control of it in September, ISGG, 
and is now at its head. It is composed of 
twelve men, paid by the parties whose 
property it guards. la addition to the 
regular and merchants' police, there is a 
force of three or four men at the Union 
Depot, appointed by the company, and con- 
firmed by the council, and invested with 
police powers. 

18 3 5. A financial panic had occurred 
in liie West during the fall of 1854. The 
Free state-stock banks had very generally 
stopped payment, and their notes, which 
formed the great bulk of the circulation, 
were passing at a heavy discount. Rail- 
way and other pending enterprises, were 
greatly embarrassed, and nearly all those 
in progress suspended operations. Trad- 
ers and manufacturers were tui'ch cramp- 
cil, and general distrust prevailed among 
business men. A bankers' convention 
was held here on the 7th of January to 
classify the notes of the suspended banks 
and fix discount rates according to the 
value of their securities. The rates were 
accordingly fixed, but not adhered to even 
by those w ho made them, and the discounts 
were raised or lowered at the caprice of 
brokers, entailing great losses on the com- 
munity, and making large sums for the 
operators iu the business. 

The mayors of the several cities of the 
State mec in convention at this point on 
the 22d of January, for consultation and 
mutual improvement, but without any visi- 
ble result. 

A colored lithographic engraving of the 
city, as seen from the top of the Blind 
Asylum, was published in January by J. 
T. Palmatary. 

A deep and lasting snow fell in Febru- 
ary, afi'ording fine sleighing. 

A number of cases of small pox occur- 
red in January, and as the disease began 
to spread during February, the council, on 
the 10th of March, ordered the erection of 
a hospital. Several lots were bought in 
the north-west corner of the plat, plans 
adopted, and the house begun; but the 
uiscdse atid panic soon subsided, funds ran 
low, and the house was suspended or pros- 
ecuted at intervals for years, and was not 
finished till the spring of 1859, requiring 
a new joof and other repairs in the mean- 
time. Its erection was due to Dr. Livings- 
toa Dunlap, councilnian from the Sixth 

I i 




■ward, who persevered against all obsta- 
cles till his object was achieved. It cost 
about S3l),000, and remained unused, ex- 
cept as a rendesvous for bad characters, 
till April, ISGl. It was proposed in Feb- 
ruary, ISGO, to sell it, but the council 
committee reported in favor of renting it. 
During the summer it was proposed to use 
it as a city prison or a house of refuge, or 
a home for friendless women; but each of 
these projects was successively defeated. 
The Sisters of Chartiy, on the "Jlst of June, 
asked its use, under tlieir control, as a 
hospital, but otlier christian denoraiuations 
opposed the plan, and the application -was 
•withdrawn. The council finally, on the 
21st of July, granted it to a society of la- 
dies as a home for friendless women. It 
was not occupied, however, for that pur- 
pose, and was given rent free to a keeper, 
who was to take care of it. After the war 
feegan and the sudden concentration of 
men at this point, the sick were taken 
there, and the council, on the 18th of May, 
granted its use to the government for a 
hospital, and it was occupied as such till 
July, IbGo, and as a soldiers' horae till No- 
vember, 1865, when, with the additions 
r,ud iruprovenieuts, it was surrendered 
again to the city. These iinprovements 
consisted of two large three-story ells, sev- 
eral outbuildings, fences, trees, gardens, 
if-CG. They had been offered for sale by 
the government authorities, but were final- 
ly surrendered to the city with the build- 
ing in lieu of rent. After the government 
vacated it, Rev. August Piessonies, Jan- 
uary 2d, 186C, submitted a proposition to 
the council to give tlie house to the Sisters 
of the Good Shepherd, as a citj' prison for 
females, and also asked that the unfinished 
house of refuge be deeded to them, to be 
finished and used as a reformatory school 
for abandoned feniHles. These proposi- 
tions were opposeii by the citizens, and a 
subscription of J'J.OOO made to finish the 
house of refuge, and Mr. Bessonies' propo- 
sition was defeated. The house remained 
vacant till Ihe sjiring of 18tJ6, when about 
$2,000 were spent in buying hospital fur- 
niture and supplies at the government 
sales at Jeifersonville. A loard of direct- 
ors was elected. Dr. G. V. Vi'ooUon chosen 
superintendent, a corps of consulting phy- 
sicians and surgeons appointed, and the 
hospital opened for patients July 1st, 18S0. 
It has since been conducted at an expense 
of six or seven thousand dollars per year. 
Two thousand, six hundred and ninety 
votes were cast at the .^Iay election. The 
revenue for general purposes, for ISoJ 
amounted to $20,500; school fund $10,300. 
The general expendituresjexhausted the re- 
ceipts and left r. debt of So07 — the bal- 

ance left in the school fund was §6,880. j 
The street improvements requiring consid- j 
erable l%bor in the engineer department, ! 
the council, in July, first authorized the | 
office of assistant engineer, at S300 salary, i 
A wood-measurer was also appointed for | 
the newly-established wood markets. A 
market house was built this year on South 
street, between Iielaware and Alabama I 
streets. liut few markets were held there, i 
ami ihe hou5e was torn down in 1838. 

The first city directory was issued this 
year by Grooms & Smith. Directories have 
since been issued by A. C. Howard, Henry 
E. McEvoy, J. T. Talbott, Sutherland & 
McEvoy, J. C. Sutherland, H. H. Dodd & 
Co., Richard Edwards, A. L. Logan and 

The liquor law took effect June 12th, 
and' tlie county agency was started. 
The law was generally observed for a few 
weeks, and unusual order and quiet reign- 
ed on the streets, but on the 2d of July 
R. Beebee was arrested for selling liquor, 
fined and imprisoned; the case went to the 
Supreme Court, and the impression gain- 
ing ground that the law would be declared 
uucoustitulional, it was soon generally 
disregarded and the traffic reopened. 

Blake's, Drake's, Fletcher's, Drake & 
Mayhew's, Blackford's and other additions 
to the city were made in 1854—5, and the 
lots mostly disposed of and their improve- 
ment begun. Between sixty and eighty 
addii^ions and sub-divisions have been 
made to the city since the first one was 
made by John Wood, in June, 183o. 

Tiie fourth of July was celebrated by 
the Sabbath Schools at the State House 
yard, in the usual manner. Nineteen 
schools, comprising 2,100 children, par- 
ticipated. The firemen paraded in the 
afternoon, making a fine display. The 
Hope company, of Louisville, then visit- 
ing here, was in the line. 

The Indianapolis Building, Loan Fund 
and Savings Association vras organized 
in October, and continued its existence 
for several years, its object, being to make 
loans to its members at ostensibly low 
rates of interest, to aid in building houses. 
The Marion Loan Fund and Savings Asso- 
ciation, a similar organization, was started 
in March, 1856. These organizations 
when wound up, failed to realize the 
hopes of their projectors. The Indianap- 
olis Fuel Association was formed on the 
i 31st October, and supplied its members 
I during the winter, with wood and coal at 
j but little over one-half the rates charged 
in the open markets. 

A women's rights convention was held 
at .Masonic Hall, October 22d and 23d, 
Mrs. Rebecca Swank, President. Mrs. 


Lucretia Mott, Ernestine L. Rose, Frances 
D. Ga?e, Adaline Swift, Haniel L. Cutler, 
and Joseph Barker, of PiKsburg. and 
other speakers addressed the convention. 
But few persons attended, and the more- 
ment excited no remark. 

The city was well supplied with amuse- 
ments this year. The Black Swan, with 
the African Mario, sang at Masonic Hall 
on the 'Jd of May, (she acjain visited the 
place iu the spring of I'r^oS.) Dii Bufe's 
paintings of Adam and Eve were shown 
M.ay 2:J-G, at Washington Hall. Powers's 
Greek Slave, October 19-25, at College 
Hall; Parodi, with Maurice and Mad;im 
Strakosch and others, sang, Dec. lOlh, 
at Masonic Hall. Brown and Commons 
opened the Atheneum, May 14, ending the 
season June '23, with C. J. FyfFe, manager, 
and J. F. Lytion, Beaver, and otliers, iu 
the company; Harry Chapman and his 
wife, Mrs. A. Drake, William Powers 
and James E. Murdoch were the stars. 
Murdoch left in disgust before the close 
of his eugagetaent. Coinsaons re-opened 
the Atheneum, September loth, ending 
the season December 8th, with Tlios Dull:', 
manager, and about the same company; 
Eliza Logan, Joseph Proctor, Susan and 
Kate Denin, Peter and Caroline Richings, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Florence were the 
stars. Yankee Robinson had returned dur- 
ing the fall, and wintered here with his 
circus company. An amphillieatre was 
fitted up in Delzell's stable, on east Pearl 
street, and horse opera given during the 

The first efi"ort at numbering the houses 
on Wasliington street, was made during 
the fall, but no settled system was adopted 
and the numbering was pir.tial and faulty. 
The Council, in July, l^oS, authorized A. 
C. Howard to number all the streets of the 
city, f.nd the work was completed during 
the fall, but the system was defi.'Ctive in 
numbering only the houses then built, 
and the work was badly done, resulting in 
confusion as new building's were erected. 
The Council, in June, 18G4, adopted a sys- 
tem authorizing fifty numbers to the 
sfjuare. The work of renumbering was 
done by A. C. Howard, and the plan has 
since been followed iu the numbering of 
new buildings. 

The Young Men's Christian Association 
gave their first, course of lectures during 
the fall and winter. Park Benjamin, Rev. 
Mr. Butler, David Paul Brown, Edwin P. 
Whipple, Henry B. Staunton, H. W. Ells- 
worth, Bishop Simpson, and Edward P. 
Thompson being the lecturers. 

185G. The General Couference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church met on the 
ist of May, iu the hall of the house of 

representatives, and continued in ees.'^ion 
for about a month, attended by the full 
board of Bishops, and the leading men of 
that denomination. The delegates were 
the guests of citizens of all the churches, 
and the pulpits of the churches were filled 
each Sabbath by preachers in attendance 
at the conference. The session was im- 
portant and interesting, and drew the at- 
tci\tiou of the whole country to this r.ity. 
It was the first national body meeting 

The city election took place May 6th, 
2,77G votes being cast, the democrats elect- 
ing the whole city ticket, with ten out of 
fourteen councilmen. 

The assessment for this year amounted 
to $7,14G,G70, S1,S'.>2,152 being personal 
property. The receipts in the general 
fund for the past year were $27,889, ex- 
penditures S46,105. The di?bt ou the 1st 
of May, 18o4, was So67; May 1st, 1855, 
5;n,0Li0; May 1st, 1856, 515,295. It was 
proposed to fund the debt by a loan, and 
Jeremiah D. Skeen was chosen iu August, 
bj' the Council, as financial agent, to sell 
city bonds in the New York market. He 
accordingly went there, aiid not succeed- 
ing in negotiating a loan for the city, hy- 
pothecated the bonds for $5,000, which he 
applied to his own use. The defalcation 
was discovered in the spring of 1857, and 
unsuccessful efforts made to recover the 
bonds. The naoney was finally paid by 
the city to the parties who had advanced 
the money to Skeen. Suit was brought 
against Skeen and his sureties, and judg- 
nieut finally recovered in January, I5G8, 
for the principal and interest of the de- 

Alfred Stevens, the City Clerk, died 
October 2Gth, and George H. West was 
appointed Clerk pro tempore, to fill the va- 
cancy. Henry F. West, .Mayor of the 
City, died November 8th, and was followed 
to the grave by an immense concourse of 
citizens. He was the only incumbent of 
that office who has died during the term. 
He had been an earnest .ind active pro- 
moter of the public schools, and their suc- 
cess had been largely due to his cflorts as 
trustee. The Council ordered a special 
election to be held, November 22d, to sup- 
ply vacancies in the offices of Clerk and 
Mayor. It was held, and for the fir't 
time in several years the democrats were 
beaten. Two thousand nine hundred and 
thirty-one votes were csist; William J. 
Wallace was chosen Mayor, and Frederick 
.^tein, city Clerk. The republicans ia- 
dulged in wild demonstrations of delight 
when the result becameknown. 

Early in February, Dunlevy, Haire i 
Co. began business as brokers and run- 

ners of the State and free b:\nk3, iu the 
interest of Cinciunati bankers. Iu two 
months S'J,000,000 of the circuhition was 
returned for redeniptiou. causing such 
financial stringency tliat a State commer- 
cial convention was hehi here, in April, 
to protest ngiinst the course of the Cin- 
cinnati ami Indianapolis brokers iu crip- 
pling the trade and resources of the State, 
by contracting the circulating medium. 
Delegates from Cleveland, St. Louis, To- 
ledo and Louisville, were in attendance. 
Bitter resolutions were adopted in regard 
to the conduct of Cincinnati business men 
and bankei's, and efforts were made to di- 
vert the trade of Indianapolis to other 
points. The meeting had the effect to se- 
riously diminish the war on Indiana 
banks, and open other markets to our peo- 

Clinton Watson opened an exchange 
ftnd reading room in August, in the room 
over Harrison's bank, but the enterprise 
failed iu a few weeks from want of pat- 

Professor T'use}' made a balloon ascen- 
sion on the 28th June, and attempted 
another on the 4th of July, but failed for 
want of Butiicient gas. The usual cele- 
bration of schools and firemen occurred, 
and in the afternoon the first fantastic 
parade attracted great crowds. 

The political canvass this year was unu- 
sually animated and bitter, both parties 
putting forth their full strength, and hold- 
ing frequent great ■conventions. The lar- 
gest republican demonstration was held on 
the loth of July, attended by many 
thousands of persons from all parts 
of the State. A great procession took 
place, and an almost equally great torch- 
light procession at night, closing with fire- 
works and balloon ascensions. During 
the afternoon, a border ruffian demonstra- 
tion and dramatic representation of the 
designs of the slave interest, and life in 
Kansas, was given by a club of young men 
in fantastic dress, and with proper acces- 
sories. It created great amusement at the 
expense of the opposite party, and was re- 
peated with effect by the club at several 
other points during the canvass. The lar- 
gest democratic convention followed on the 
17th, closing also with a torchiigiu proces- 
sion at night, and in numbers and enthu- 
siasm vied with that of their opponents. 

A great storm of wind and rain took 
place November 21st, doing considerable 
dami'.ge, not only hero, but all over the 
western States. 

The Indianapolis Art Society was formed 
during this or the next year, and lield an- 
nual drawings for several years, under the 
direction of a committee, at Herman Lei- 

ber's print and picture store, where the 
pictures (mostly by Indianapolis or Indi- 
ana artists. 1 were placed on exhibition. — 
.Messrs. Jacob Cox, I'. Fishe Heed, Jas. F. 
Gookins and others, being contributors. — 
The paintingM were purchased by an asso- 
ciation, at tlieir value, each member con- 
tributing a stipulated sum, and the pic- 
tures were divided by lot. .Many good 
paintings wt-re thus distributed at small 
cost among tlie citizens. 

Tiio Young .Mens' Literary, and the 
Young .Mens Christian Associations each 
gave a course of lectures during the win- 
ter. Charles Sumner, J. B. Gough. T. A. 
Mills, S. S. Cox, Elihu Burritt and others, 
appearing before our people. Judson, 
John and Hutchinson sang. January 22, 
at Masonic Hall. Ole Bull appeared Feb- 
ruary 27, Signer Blitz, (the elder.) in 
April, Tom Thumb in July, I^liss Kichinga 
October 10th, and oOth; Strakosch, Paroui, 
Tiberini, .Morini, and Paul Julieu, Novem- 
ber24th;auda State musical convention 
under George F. Pvoot, was held there No- 
vember 20-1. W. L. Woods opened the 
atheneum in March, for one month ; W. 
DaviJge being the only noted star. It was 
reopened by Vance & Lytton, May 16. clo- 
sing June 3; Eliza Logan, Miss Kichings, 
and Mrs. Coleman Pope, being the stars. — 
It was opened by MadJocks & Wilson sev- 
eral times in June and July, for a day or 
two at a lime. Wilson, Pratt ^s: Co. ap- 
peared there during the State fair; Yankee 
Bierce and the Maddcrn sisters early in 
December, and on the D3th of December it 
was opened by Lytton & Co. for the season, 
closing March 9, lSo7. The company in- 
cluded Mr. and .Mrs. Pt. J. Miller, Mr. and 
.Mrs. Lacey, Tannyhill, Lytton, and others. 
Sue Benin, Dora Shaw, John Drew, Char- 
lotte Crumpton, Mrs. Drake and Miss Du- 
val, appeared as stars. It was reopened 
for a few days, afterward, for benefits, and 
in March 1567, for a week or two, under 
C. J. Smith, as manager. 

18 57. The Germans, during the fall 
of ISoO, had requcstel that a portion of 
the city free school fund should bo set apart 
for the support of German schools, and the 
council in December had requested the 
trustees to report whether the project was 
feasible and proper. They reported against 
it in January, 1857, stating that the fund 
and school accommodations were insuf- 
ficient for the schools then in operation. 
There were nine houses (two of them 
rented,) and the old seminary, in use. prop- 
erly accommodating twelve hundred pu- 
pils, while eighteen hundred were in at- 
tendance. The fund for ItiJtj had amount- 
el to S27,CC0, the expenses to 810.42^^; bal- 
ance $7, GIG. There were thirty-five teach- 


ers ernfiloyed in June, and 2,730 children 
enrolled, being about forty-four per ceut. 
of tbe childrea in the city, and but sev- 
enty-three per cent, of those enrolled were 
iu d.aily atteudance. The first ward house 
had been raised to two stories, in 1S54, and 
the fifth w.'ird house in ISJG. The eighth 
ward house was built this year. D. V. 
Culley, John Love and N. 13. Taylor, were 
elected trustees in January. la .\UfrusL 
there were tweni^'-nine sabbath schools, 
with two thousand nine huodrcd and fifty 

The city council on tlie ICth of March 
adopted the new incorporation law as the 
city charter, under which the city officers 
and couticilmen were elected for two years. 
Three thousand three hundred votes were 
cast at the May election, each party elect- 
ing part of its ticket. The council organ- 
ized and drew for short and long terms, 
and elected Andrew Wallace chief fire en 
gincer. The receipts in the general fund 
for the past j-ear were S3"J,Gy7; expendi- 
tures 631,003; balance SI, -32; debt S23,- 
740; bchool fund 520,329; expenses $15,- 
3S4; b-ilance $4,915. The assessment was 
S9, 874, 700, and a tax levy for general pur- 
poses of sixty cents on each $100. The 
salaries of the city officers wpre fixed as 
follows : Mayor $800, clerk $G00, marshal 
$500, deputy S400, attorney $400, street 
cciuuiissioner $450, engineer SCOO, clerk of 
markets S300, sexton $80, chief fire en- 
gineer S175, treasurer four per cent, on 
current and six per cent, on delinquent 
receipts, and councilmen $2 each meeting. 

On the 22d of May the German Turn- 
ers had a celebration, procession, address 
and gymnastic exercises on the military 

The spring had been backward and wet, 
and on the 10th, 12th and IGth of June 
there were tremendous thunder storms, 
resulting in a sudden and high freshet in 
Wliitc river and other streams in the State. 

A brilliant comet appeared iu the west- 
ern sky in the latter part of June. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated by 
the Sabbat h-sohools only, the firemen not 
parading, and the Guaris were at Lex- 
itigton attending tlie Clay monument dedi- 
cation. This celebration was notable only 
as the last general one held b}' the schools. 

Meetings were held in July by the busi- 
ness men to encourage the establishment 
of exclusively wholesale dry goods and no- 
tion houses. A committee appointed by 
the meeting reported that though there 
were seventy-five establishments and thir- 
ty-two manufactories which did a whole- 
sale business to a greater or less extent, 
there was but one exclusively wholesale 
dry goods house iu the place. Blake, 

Wright & Co., started a dry goods hotise 
in response to the demand of the meeting; 
but the cutcrprisj was short lived. 

There were two riots iu July iu wliioli 
the firemen were prominent actors, attack- 
ing houses of ill fame in the western 
part of the city, destroying the furniture 
and injuring the btiildings. Several af- 
fairs of this kind occurred afterv.-ard iu this 
and the following years, the firemen being 
principal actors in all of them. 

The county fair this year was a failure 
on account of unfavorable weather, but 
the State fair was the most sncccssful ever 
held here, there being over three (housaad 
seven hundred entries of articles for exhi- 
i ition, and the gate receipts amounting to 
nearly $14,000. .\ vast crowd was in at- 
tendance during the three leading days. A 
griind p.%rade of our fire department, with 
visiting companies from New Albauy and 
Dayton, was held during the fair, 

A negro was arrested here in December 
under the fugitive slave law. The arrest 
catised much excitement, and being fa- 
vored by the crowd, he escaped, but was 
recaptured after a long chase in the north 
part of the city, and remanded to his mas- 
ter in Kentucky, being convoyed thither 
by a large squad of heavily armed deputy 

Dodworth's New York band, ninety in 
number, gave a concert on the 30th of June 
on the military grounds, under contract 
with H. Stone, of Cleveland, in his gift con- 
cert enterprise. Tn:-y al.;o gave a concert 
at night, in .Masonic ball, for their own ben- 
efit; but neither of the performances was 
largely patronized. 

Edward Everett delivered his Mt. Ver- 
non lecture on the 4th of May at Masonic 
hall. Thalberg, Parodi and Mollenhauer 
gave a concert .May 7th at tiie hall. Dud- 
ley Tyng, Horace Greeley, Tlx-Gov. Bout- 
well and others lectured during the f'^ll 
and winter for the Young Men's Christian 
.■Is.-ociation. Mr. Kunz and his daughters 
gave a series of German theatrical per- 
formances, during June and July, at the 
.•\pollo Gardens. Stetson & Wood opened 
the Atheneum September oth, with Mr. aud 
.^I^s. Harry Cha]iman and an indifferent 
company, closing November 2d. 

The Indianapolis Daily Citizen was 
started May 14th, 1557, by Cameron & Mc- 
Neely, at their office, 10 east Pearl street. 
It was regularly issued by them till June, 
1S5S, when it was discontinued. It was 
republican in politics, and well conducted. 
The Western Presage, a literary and polit- 
ical weekly paper, was first issued by 
liidwell Bros, at 81 east Washington street, 
January 3J, 1857. It was the exponent 
of advanced republican ideas, was issued 




in expensive stjle, resuUing in the failure 
of the firm and the discontinuance of the 
paper in April. It deserved a longer life 
and better fate. 

Much building was done in 1S57. Tlie 
block opposite the court-house, the Episco- 
pal, and Third and Fourth Presbyterian 
churches, the United States post-oiScc, 
Metropolitan Theatre f^nd many other 
prominent buildings being in progress. 

18 5 8. The question as to tlie constitu- 
tionality of the free school tax was deci- 
ded iu January by the Supreme Court, 
against the tax. The citizens of each ward 
were requested by the city council lo meet 
and, if possible, devise means by which 
the system could be maintained. The 
meetings were held January 2'Jtli. It 
resolved to continue ths schools, and cue 
thousaud one hundred scholarsliips, amount- 
ing to So,000, were subscribed to keep 
them going for the current quarter. At 
the end of that time they stopped, th3 
teachers left, the system was broken up, 
and the houses were closed. Some effort 
was made to re-establish private schools, 
and the free echools were opened each 
j'car fur a short time under the State law. 

Three thousand, three h;indred and for- 
ty-three votes were polled at the May elec- 
tion, the republicans electing the entire 
ticket and a majority of the couucilmen. 
The council elected Samuel Lefevcr chief 
of police, and the fire association having 
presented the name of Jos. ^'>'. Davis for 
chief fire engineer, he was elected to that 
office on the l.'2d of May. Much dissatis- 
faction arose among the firemen at his 
election, and from this date, till November, 
1859, when it was disbanded, the efficien- 
cy of the department was much impaired. 
The opposition to Mr. Davis was mainly 
o^^ing to his imperious manner, for other- 
wise he was a good executive officer. The 
assessment of city property for the current 
year showed a total of $10,475,000, and 
the increase in buildings over last year 
was $600,000. 

The spring of 1857 had been unusually 
wet, and the spring und early summer of 
this year were still more so. Constant 
and heavy rains fell from early in April 
to ihe middle of June. Great storms oc- 
curred on the llthof April, the 11th and 
12th of May and about the 10th of June. 
Pogue's run completely flooded its val- 
ley on the 12th of Ajiril. Several street 
bridges were swept ofi'; the Central rail- 
road bridge giving way as a locomotive 
was passing over, throwing it into the 
creek. The culvert under the canal was 
also carried off. V>'hile river was over the 
bottoms repeatedly during the spring, and 
ou the 14th of June reached a point but 

little below the flood-mark of 1847, caus- ; 
ing great loss in fencing to the farmers i 
along the valley. The wet season was 
succeeded by very hot, dry weather, and j 
on the 2Gth of June eight cases of sun- | 
stroke occurred, five of them being fital. i 
Several cases happened the next day, and 
for two or three days afterward all persons I 
kept in tlie shade as much as possible. I 

A brilliant comet, which passed very 
near the earth in its course, was visible in j 
the western heavens iu September and Oc- | 
tober, its train bending like a bow. 

A Bible investigating class was origi- 
nated during the summer or fall, holding ! 
meetings every Sunday at the court house, 
for investigation of tlie authenticity of 
the Scriptures, or the meaning of disputed 
passages. Atheists, Deists and members 
of all orthodox churches participated in 
the discussions, which weie often keen and 
searching, sometimes acrimonious. The 
meetings were kept up during this and the 
next year, were well attended, excited 
much interest, and if they did no other 
good, at least caused more study of the Bi- 
ble by some persons than they otherwise 
ever would have given it. 

Four or five miles of mains were laid by 
the Gas Company during tlie summer and 
fall, and several miles of streets were 
liehted. Much building and street im- 
provement also were undertaken. Black- 
ford's block, the -Etna building, r^Ietropoli- 
tan Theater and tlie ^Va3hington street cul- 
vert over Pogue's run were built. 

The 4th of July happening on Sunday, 
no general celebration took place. The 
3d and 5th were devoted to pic-nics by the 
schools, firemen and Turners, the military 
companies going to Richmond. 

A Jewish church, Rev. T. Weschler, was 
organized in August, worshipping in Ju- 
dahs' block till IStJG, when the Synagogue 
on east Market street, built in 18G5-0, was 
completed at a cost of $25,000, and occu- 
pied by the congregation. 

There was great rejoicing and an ex- 
temporised illumination on the night of 
the 7th of August, over the completion of 
the Atlantic Cable, and on the 17th a for- 
mal celebration of that event took place in 
the Circle, with a display of fire-works 
and an oration by Governor 'Wallace. Tlio 
National Guards held a three days en- 
campment, in (October, on White river, 
north-west of the city. 

The Indianapolis Academy of Science 
was organized during the summer, R. T. 
Brown, J. W. Barnitz, and others, being 
prominent in the matter. A room iu Ju- 
dahs' block was rented, meetings and dis- 
cussions held, papers read on scientific 
subjects, and a considerable cabinet of 


geological specimens accumulated, bat the 
community not taking sufficient interest 
in it, the society was suspended in July 
1860, and its collections scattered. 

Lectures and amusements were not lack- 
ing this year. Thomas F. Meagher lec- 
tured, February 17th, at Masonic Hall. 
Ormsby M. Mitchell began a series of as- 
tronouiical lectures there, October 'JTth, 
B. F. Taylor, M. F. Maury, E. L. Youmans, 
Bayard Taylor, L'r. Holland, and others, 
lectured during the season before the 
YouHg Men's Christian Association, .-in- 
drew Jacksou Davis, the "I'okepsie seei"," 
gave a series of spiritual lectures there, 
beginning December IGth. The German 
singing societies of the State held a con- 
vention, June 10th-13th, with a pro- 
cession and grand coucert. A German 
theatrical troupe appeared at the Alho- 
neum in August, and in January and Feb- 
ruary there vrere two German theaters at 
Washington and Union halls. Sam. and 
Kate Denin Ryan had appeared with a 
small company at "Washington Hall in 
April. Harry Chapman during the State 
Fair, opened the Athencum, Mrs. Drake 
and J. K. Mortimer appearing on the 
boards. It had also been opened for a few 
nights by strolling companies, several 
times during the summer. 

The dramatic event of the year, how- 
ever, was the opening of the Metropolitan 
Theater, the first building specially devo- 
ted to amusements here. It ivas erected by 
Valentine P.utsch in ISoT-S, on the north- 
east corner of Washington and Tennessee 
streets. The corner stone vms laid in 
August 1S57, and the house opened Sep- 
tember 27, 1858. The building was eighty- 
two by one hundred and twenty-five feet, 
three stories high, of brick stuccoed in im- 
itation of sandstone, and, with the lot, cost 
when conipletely fitted up, about $58,- 
000. The cellars and ground floor are 
used for business purposes. I'he dress cir- 
cle and parquet are well arranged, but the 
gallery was not well designed for a proper 
view of the stage. T!ie building will com- 
fortably seat about twelve hundred persons. 
The interior was neatly frescoed and gil- 
ded by artists from Cincinnati, and the 
scetiery was mostly painted by S. W. 

E. T. Sherlock was the first manager 
and lessee, opening September 27th, 1S38, 
with a rather indifferent company, and 
closing Feb'y 29th, ISJ'J. Harry Chap- 
man continued it as manager till March 13, 
1&-3H. The Keller troupe, H. W. Gossin, 
Sallie St. Clair, Hacket, Dora Sliuw, the Flor- 
ences, J. B. Roberts, Mr§. J. W. Wallack, 
Mrs. Howard, Adah Isaacs Menken, the 
Cooper opera troupe, Eliza Logan, Mr. 

and Mrs. Waller, Mrs. Edwin Forrest, ilr. I 
Sedlcy and Miss Matilda Heron appeared 1 
as stars during the season. George Wood ! 
i Co. opened it again for a short time in 
April. John A. Ellsler opened it in .April, i 
1S59, for a two months season; Miss Kim- I 
herlyj Collins, and Kate and Sam Ryan | 
appearing as stars. He again opened it, 
October 1st, the season closing >l.irch 2d, 
ISOl. The \Vebb sisters. Miss Ince, Sallie 
St. Clair, ^Marion McCarthy, F. A. \'in- 
cent, Barras, J. B. P^oberts, the Richings 
and others being the stars. The war 
having begun, and thousands of men 
thronging here, the theatre was re-opened 
by Mr Butch, as proprietor and man-iger, 
on the 2jth of -Vpril, F. A, Vincent being 
stage manager, and Miss McCarthy lead- 
ing lady. A good company was also se- 
cured, and from this date until after the 
close of the war, the enterprise was well 
supported and profitable. Most of the 
leading members of the stock company 
continued here for several successive sea- 
sons, and some of them, as Mr. and Mrs. 
Hodges, and F. C. White, until the thea- 
tre was finally closed in the spring of 
1SG8. Vincent continued as stage man- 
ager until IS'33. William H. Riley then 
succeeded, holding that position till the 
spring of IS'jI. He then removed to 
the St. Charles theatre, New Orleans, 
dying shortly after his arrival there. 
2*1. V. Lingham became manager for the 
season of lSo7-8, and in the spring 
of ISoS Charles R. Pope became tlie last 
manager, with a good company, and giv- 
ing the people the most brilliant season 
ever witnessed there. Edwin Forrest 
played an engagement of five nights, be- 
ginning March IGth, to crowded houses, at 
; double the usual rates of admission. 
Since April, 1861, nearly all the leading 
actors and actresses in the country iiave 
appeared on the boards of the Metropol- 
itan, and among others, Adelaide Ristori 
appeared there with her company, under 
Gratis' management, on the 2Gth March, 

The theatre has not been so well sup- 
ported since the close of the war. Its po- 
sition was against it, being too far west. 
The proprietor, Mr. Putsch, eariy in 1S':S, 
purchased Miller's Hal!, (then nearly 
completed,) on the corner of Illinois and 
Ohio streets, for about 550,000, and has 
fitted it up in tasteful style for a theatre 
and music hall, to be opened in the fall of 
this year. The building is much larger 
than 'the old theatre, and the auditorium 
will comfortably accommodate a much 
larger audience. The old theatre will 
her'eafter bo used for concerts, i.:;cture3, 
meetings, lic. 



18 5 9. Some eftbvts were made in Jau- 
uary, to organize a corporation for n Uni- 
veisity at this point, and in February an- 
applicntion was made to the Assembly for 
a lease of University Square lor a term of 
niuety-nine years, as a site for the cou- 
temphtted buildings, tjie propo'ty to be 
surrcTi'lc-red to the State at ihn end of the 
term. .A.3 there was some doubt as to the 
ownership of the square, between the city 
and the State, the application was not 
granted, and the project was dropped. 
The city terminated tlie dispute as to 
ownership in 1S60, by taking possession 
of the square and the military grounds. 
The old seminary was torn down in Au- 
gust and September, ISGO, and the square 
improved as a park. In ]SG7-8 the mili- 
tary grounds were fenced, and also im- 
proved as a park, at the expense of the 
city. Tiie ownership and possession of 
the city will probably be uncontested here- 

The pas company liaJ Laid a number of 
miles of mains during 18-58, and during 
this year were still further extending the 
pipes. Many applications for street lamps 
had been granted, and others were pend- 
ing, and as no uniformity existed in the 
position of the lamps, or their number to 
the square, and no regulations had yet 
been adopted on the subject, the Council, 
on the 12th of February, passed an ordi- 
nance prescribing a goner;:! plan for 
lighting the city, fixing the number of 
lamps at four for each square, and their 
position, and distance from each other. 
Under this ordinance several arlditioual 
miles of streets were lit for the first time, 
in the fall and winter of this year, 
Washington street, from Pennsylvania to 
New Jersey, and Illinois from Washing- 
ton to North street, being in the number. 

Early in 1854 a number of young men 
had formed a gymnastic association, 
adopted by-lawB, fixed admission fees, 
dues, &c., and elected oiTicers. The third 
Btory of Blake"s commercial row was 
rented, and fitted up with a complete set 
of apparatus. The gymnasium was popu- 
lar, and well patronized for two or three 
months, but as the novelty wore off and 
the hard work began, the interest rapidly 
lessened, and but few steadily availed 
themselves of its advantages for exercise 
and health. The association declined for 
want of member.^, and died in a year or 
two, after spasmodic efforts to continue 
it. No further effort was made till March, 
or April, 1859, when the Indianapolis 
Gymnastic Association was formed, with 
Simon Yandes, President, and Thomas H. 
Bowles, Secretary. A code of rules was 
adopted, and the third story of the Athe- 

neum building rented, and fitted up wiih 
gymnastic apparatus, bowling allevs. c\c., 
at a cose of about SI, 'JOG. and the room 
opened for use in June. The older men 
were also invited to share iu the enter- 
prise, and v.ith their aid it did very well 
for two or tliree years, the bowling alleys 
and chess tables largely adding to its at- 
tractiveness. The interest gradually di- 
minished, however, and though the ladies 
were asked to share its advantages, the 
organization became defunct at the break- 
ing out of the war. 

A grand procession and celebration by 
the Odd Fellows took place on the i:Jih of 

In .April, Kev. Gibbon Williams bought 
the house and one and a half acres of 
ground at the north-west corner of Penn- 
sylvania and .Michigan streets, and shortly 
afterward opened the Indianapolis Female 
Institute, a school which has increased in 
importance and prosperity to the present 
time. The building, (at first small and 
ill arranged) was greatly enlarged and 
improved at several subsequent periods, 
and at present is one of the largest edu- 
cational structures in the city, having a 
capacity for nearly two hundred boarding, 
and three hundred day pupils. Rev. .Mr. 
Williams left in 18*j3, and was succeeded 
in the presidency of the institution, by 
C. W. Hewes. A full corps of able pro- 
fessors are connected with the college, 
anil the number of pupils has steadily in- 
creased since its origin. 

The city election took place May Sd, the 
city officers being elected for two years, 
and the councilmen for four years, under 
the amended charter adopted by the assem- 
bly March 1, 1850. At the same time a 
proposition was submitted to the general 
vote of the people to divide the first and 
seventh wards, so that two new wards 
should be created, forming the eighth and 
ninth wards, but the result.of the vote was 
largely, against it. The proposition was 
again submitted to vote iu May ISiJl and 
carried by six hundred and twenty-one 
majority. Councilnjen were elected from 
the nev<- wards, but were refused their 
seats, and tlie wards were unrepresented 
for a year or two afterward. 

The city clerk reported the receipts from 
May 8, 1858 to May 30, 1859, at $71, 211, 
expenditures the same, with a debt of $9,- 
317. The total city assessment for the 
year was S7,14G,G77. The treasurer re- 
ported the receipts from May 8, 185S to 
.May 1, 1859 at ^59,108. Expenditures 
S50,442, the leading items being $10,232 
for the fire department; gas $1,771; watcli- 
man $4,882. The salaries of the city of- 
ficers were raised in May and June. The 

bouldering of Wa?hii)gtoii street, between 
Illinois and MeriJiin streets, (the first done 
here,) had been ordered in April and was 
done in May, and further street improve- 
L'.onts Tvere designed. The council, iu view 
of the probable expenditures, fixed the tax 
levy at 'sixty cents, vrhich so aroused the 
tax-payers that ihey held a public meeting 
June 'Jl'd, to protest against it. They lit- 
tle kuer.' what was in store for them in 
the fu;i;re. 

A proposition was entertained by the 
council, during the spring, to build a City 
Hull on the lot south of the Journal office 
on Meridian street, but no final notion 
was taken. The city otfices and council 
room were located in the Odd Fellows Hall 
where they remained till May, 18G2, when 
a lease, for ten years, was secured of the 
upper stories of Gleuns' block. EtI'orts 
have often been made to secure the erec- 
tion of a City Hall and prison, but without 

The General Assembly of the Old School 
Pr'^sbytevian church met in tlie basement 
room of the Third Presbyterian church, 
May 18'h, continuing in S(?ssion till the 

caused much excitement, especially among 
country visitors and the ladies, thous.iti'js 
of whom impatiently awaited the siran-^e 
display. It proved to be all that fancy 
paiuled it, and the procession was accom- 
panied through its midnight march by a 
multitude of half crazy spectators, though 
tlie gravity of the puissant Knights and 
reverend prelates was sadly disturbed by 
the noisy advice of the street boys, " go 
faster old tin-head,'' " step up brass moun- 
ted man." 

On the 23d of August, Adam Deltz drank 
eight gallons of lager beer together with .'v 
bottle of brandy, inside of twelve hours, 
attaining a wide notoriety thereby and 
winning a wager. 

Much improvement took place during 
the summer and fall, and a number of 
good business liouses were erected. Yohns', 
Rays' and Glenus' blocks being among 

The Daily Atlas was first issued by Joha 
D. L'efrees as editor and publisher, iu July, 
from an office in Van Blaricum's block, on 
south Meridian street. The presses were 
run bv a small Ericsson hot air engine^ 

2d of June. Tho eminent men of the j (the only one ever used here.) which al- 
church were in attendance, and the de- I tracted many visitors. The paper was 
bates between Dr. McMa&ters and N. L. j regularly issued till about the end of March 
Piico, and others, en the establishment of Ib'Jl, and then discontinued, the material 


and subscription list being sold to the i|j 
Journal office. Several other newspaper l | 
enterprises have been started here before 
and since the Citizen and Atlas were estab- 
lished. The Brookville American wfiS 


theological schools and the policy of the 
church on the slavery question, excited 
great interest and attracted crowded audi- 

Tho national anniversary was celebra- 
ted with unusual display. The City Conn- j transferred to this point by the editor 
cil appropriated 3-5"'-' f"i' '^^ purp'^-^i "^^"^ ' pi'oprietor, Thomas A. Goodwin, in l^oT. 
large subscriptions were made by individ- ! It was afterward sold to Downey k Co., The procession comprised the ar- wlio issued it as a daily for a short period, 
tillery, cavalry and infantry companies, [and then sold the establishment to Jordan 
three bands. Turners, Butchers, Fenians, I & Purnet. They changed the name to the 
Catholic societies, Madison firemen and | Evening Gazette. Dr. Jordan afterward 
our ov,n fire department, seven companies I issued it till the spring of PSG-3, when he 

with eight engines, reels, hook and ladder 
wagons and a long line of carriages. The 
engines were beautifully decorated. The 
procession, which was nearly two miles in 
length, marched through the principal 
streets to the old fair ground, where the 
usual exercises occurred, Caleb B. .Smith 
delivering the address. A great pic-nic 
dinner was spread, after which the mili 

sold it to Smith & Co. They afterward 
sold it to Macauley, Shurtletf i Co., and 
they sold the olSce and list, in May or 
June 1S67, to the Journal Co. The Gazette 
was issued most of the time from an ofnce 
in Hubbard's block, and latterly from the 
Sentinel office on Pearl and Meridian 
streets. It was well conducted during a 
part of its existence, and attained a con- 

tary were reviewed by Governor Hammond, siderable circulation during the war. 

A grand fantastic parade took place in the j The Daily Telegraph, the oply German 

evening, and a fine display of fire-works j daily in the city, was issued by the Free 

at night. Over twenty thousand persons 
were present at the celebration. It was 
rumored in the evening that the " Sons of 
Malta," a mysterious organization, which 
had rapidly increased in number during 
the spring, would parade at midnight; 

Press Co., in ISGG, and has continued to 
the present time. The office is on west 
Maryland street. 

The Evening Commercial was estab- 
lished in 18G7 by Dynes i Co.. and issued 
from Downey S: Brouse's Punlii-hing House 

their rigid rules p.'-eventing public der.ion- j in the Sentinel building on Pearl street, 
strations at any other hour. The report | It was subsequently moved with their of- 



fice to the old Journal building, on Circle 
aud Meridian streets, and is now pub- 
lished by M. G. Lee. 

The y6ar 1859 was dull so far as lectures, 
concerts and amusements were coucerned. 
Geo. D. Prt utice lectured at the hall on the 
6th of February, and Henry S. Foote, of 
Mississippi, at Roberts' chapel, December 
2d. Dr. Boynton delivered a series of geo- 
logical lectures, at the hall, in December 
and January, ISoO. Miss Laura Melrose 
Bang there >Iarch 24, and the Cooper opera 
troupe April 1st. 

The coming political contest began to 
excite attention. Gov. Corwin addressed 
a large serenading party at the American 
House, on the 6th of July. Abraham Lin- 
coln visited the city for the first tiuie, and 
addressed a large imdience at Masonic 
Hall, on the 19th of September. He was 
personally unknown to the great mass of 
the citizens, and considerable curiosity was 
manifested to hear the man v.'ho had so 
gallantly struggled with Senator Douglass, 
then at the zenith of hir power. 

Richard Cobden, of Lngland, then on a 
visit to this country, reached the city on 
the 5th of May, but remained a few hours 
only, passing oa to the north-west. The 
year closed with excessively cold weather. 

ISGO. The military grounds being 
thought too small to properly accommodate 
the visitors and exhibitors, at tlie State 
fairs, the agricultural board determined in 
1S59 to secure a large tract for the pur- 
pose, aud locate the fair permanently at 
this point. Proposals were invited in the 
fall of 1S59, and an unsuccessful effort 
was shorth- after made here to form an as- 
eociation to buy the grounds for the board. 
An appropriation of So.UOO was then asked 
from the city, and the proposition being 
submitted in February to a vote of the peo- 
ple, it was authorized. A question arising, 
however, as to the legality of such an ap- 
propriation, it was not made. The rail- 
ways and the board finally made an ar- 
rangement for the purchase of the grounds, 
and after mucli competition between the 
advocates of various sites, the Otis grove, 
of forty acres, north of the city, was 
bought in the spring of 1800. Extensive 
and costly improvements were made du- 
ring the summer, and the fair held there, 
October 15ih to 21st. It was not ag suc- 
cessful as had been desired. SI 1,-00 only 
were realized, and apart only ofthe award- 
ed premiums were paid. The board was 
seriously embarrassed for several years 
afterward, but is now get'ing out of debt. 

In April a Mr. Fell, of Rochester, New 
York, submitted a plan for water works to 
the council. The project was discussed at 
a number of meetings. Estimates were 

made, but no definite action was finally 
taken. It was again broached by the cen- 
tral canal company in July, 16G4. They 
proposed to furnish water from their ditch. 
This project was also cfiu3i<lercd, and com- 
mittees appointed who rejiorted on it, but 
the subject was finally dropped without 
definite results. In October, 1S05, the 
Mayor again brought up the subject by a 
message, urging the building of such 
works, and recommending Crown Hill as 
the point for a reservoir The council 
passed a resolution declaring it expedient 
that sucli works be built, and that it was 
inexpedient for the city to undertake them. 
This action was intended to invite propo- 
sals from private companies, but had no 
immediate elfect. In .May, IStjG, the Mayor 
again brought the subject before the coun- 
cil, intruJucing questions propounded by 
him to James B. Cunningham, civil engin- 
eer, and tlie answers and estimates made 
by that gentleman in reply. The subject 
was again brought up October 15, ISOo, on 
a proposition by Pi. B. Catherwood and his 
associates to build water-works if a liberal 
charter was granted them. The council 
thereupon by resolution declared it expe- 
dient tliat water works be built, and inex- 
pedient for the city to build tliem. A 
committee on the subject was appointed. — 
It reported an ordinance on the 2'2d of Oc- 
tober, authorizing R. B. Catherwood k, Co. 
as the Indianapolis water works company, 
to build such works, and furnish the city 
and people with water for fifty years. The 
ordinance, after various amendments, was 
finally passed, November 3, ISGG. It gave 
the company the right, for fifty years, to 
furnish the people and city with pure 
water, to be taken from White river or its 
tributaries, several miles above the city. — 
To use the streets and alleys for pipes, the 
company to repair the streets when torn 
up. The city reserved the right to buy the 
works after twenty-five years; required 
operations to be commenced within one 
year, and a given sum to be expended 
within two years. Hydrants and fire-plugs 
were to be located where desired, and the 
city was to pay from $A'') down to $'Jo, ac- 
cording to the number ultimately erected. 
The amount of capital was specified, and 
the amount of profit on it limited to fif- 
teen per cent., water rates to be placed as 
low, from time to time, as practicable. The 
company was organized under the charier, 
with R. B. Catherwood, president, Jno. S. 
Tarkington, secretary, and accepted the 
ordinance, November 5, ISOtj, filing it with 
the mayor, who, on tiie Cth of November, 
issued his proclamation, stating that fact, 
and publishing the ordinance. The com- 
pany, within the year, and to save their 

Td. ;< 


charter, nomiunlly began operations by 
laying about fifty feet of pipe ca North 
street. Nothing bus since been done with 
the work. 

So far as a convenient an 1 plentiful sup- 
ply of vrater is concerned, the vrorks •will 
doubtless be of great benefit, but no sur- 
face water will ever equal in puriiy and 
healthfulness the water now drawn from 
wells sunk in the great gravel and sand- 
beds underneath the city, and if surface 
dr.iinage was carefully prevented, no dete- 
rioratiau in its puritywill occur for scores 
of years. No artificial filters can equal 
those nature Ims given us, and the phos- 
phates and carbonates dissolved by the 
water in its passage through the sand are 
those most needed in the human system. 

By the treasurer's report iu May, the re- 
ceiprs for the past year were SS7.l!02, ex- 
penditures SSO,172, balance $7,0'^'Q, debt 
$11,553. The leading items were for fire 
department 511,3-33, bridges $13,i)lo, street 
improvements §14,875, police ^5,9:6, gas 
$6,445. The city duplicate showed an as- 
sessment amounting to §10,700,000. 

Street railroads in the city were first 
proposed in November of this year, and an 
unsuccassful attempt was made to form a 
company to build them. No further action 
was taken in regard to them until June 
5th, 1SG3, when a number of our citizens 
formed a company under the general law. 
electing Thon^as A Moi-ris president, Wm. 
Y. ^S'iley, secretary, and Wm. 0. Rock- 
wood, treasurer. They filed an application 
with the council on the '24th of August, 
setting forth their organization, and ask- 
ing a charter from the city. The applica- 
tion was referred to a committee, who pre- 
pared an ordinance and submitted it for 
the consideration of the council. Amend- 
ments were proposed, and while the ordi- 
nance was still pending, R. B. Catherwood, 
of New York, associated with several of 
our own citizens, formed the Citizens' 
Street Railroad Company, with John A. 
Bridgland as president, and proposed 
more favorable terms to the council, agree- 
ing to begin the construction of the lines 
at once, and finish a greater number of 
miles in a given time. The conipctition 
between the two companies grew warm. 
It was charged that the Citizens' company 
was not responsible or able to fulfill their 
offers. Tney responded to this by paying 
down nearly 530,000 of their capital, and 
offering bond of $200,000 to fulfill all their 
agreements. The council finally decided 
the contest in favor of the Icdiauapolis 
company, granting them a charter on the 
11th of December, 1.SG3. They declined to 
accept it on the 2Stb of December; and 
the mayor having telgraphcd that fact to 

Mr. Catherwood, at Brooklyn, New York, 
he immediately answered that he would 
accept the charter, re-organize the com- 
pany, and begin the work. On the ISlh of 
January, lSf.'>4, the council passed an ordi- 
nance giving the Citizens" Street Railroad 
Company, (which had re-organized, with 
R. B. Catherwood, president, E. C. Cather- 
wood, secretary, and II. H. Catherwood, 
superintendent,) the right to Iny single or 
double tracks of railway on all the streets 
and alleys of the city, or its future exten- 
sions. Horse-cars were to be used only 
for transportation of passengers and bag- 
gage. The council retained the right to 
govern spued and time. The tracks were 
to conform to the street grades, and the 
company were to boulder between the 
tr-^cks and two feet each side. The tracks 
were to be laid in the center of the street, 
or, if double, on each side of the center, 
p.nd not nearer the side-walks than twelve 
feet. Fares on any route were not to ex- 
ceed five cents. The company to repair 
all damage to the streets, relay tracks 
when the street grades are changed, and 
be liable to private parties for all dama- 
ges they might sustain. They were to re- 
turn annually, on the first of January, a 
full statement of all property for taxation; 
but each separate line was to be exempt 
from taxation for two years from its com- 
pletion. Rules were prescribed for the 
running and management of the cars, and 
the cars were given riglit of T.'ay against 
all other vehicles. The charter was given 
for thirty years, subject to tiie following 
conditions: Three miles were to be built 
and fully equipped by October 1, 18G4, 
two additional miles by October 1, 1865, 
two additional miles by December 25th 
1866, unless a further extension of time 
was granted bj' the council, otherwise all 
rights, kc, under the charter were to be 
forfeited. The council reserved the right 
to order additional lines constructed after 
the first seven miles were finished; and in 
case of failure, the company was to forfeit 
the right to that particular street or route. 
If, after ten years, the company had not 
built and fully equipped ten miles of track 
in the best style, the council might order 
an appraisement and pay the company 
therefor, or transfer the property and fran- 
chise to another company. The ordinance 
was to be in force after two weeks publica- 
tion in the weekly Journal. 

The company accepted the charter, and 
immediately began preparations for build- 
ing lines. Materials were collected du- 
ring the spring, cars ordered, and property 
secured for stables and cur-houses. Their 
operations were somewhat delayed, and 
the iron and cars detained by the use of 



the railvravs by government. But on ap- 
plication, the council, ou tne '21lh of Au- 
gust, 18G-i, extended the time for sixty 
days, and no forfeiture of their franchise 
occuired. Tiack-laying began on Illinois 
strcst at the Union depot, and the line was 
finished on that street to North street with- 
in the year. Tracks were also laid on 
Washington from Pennsylvania to West 
Streets, and thence to the military ground, 
in lime for the State fair in October. Tlie 
line on Illinois street had been opened for 
travel in June, ISoI — the mayor driving 
the first car on the first trip, accompanied 
by the council, city ofticers and officers of 
the company. In the fall of 1SG4 the citi- 
zens along Virginia avenue, having sub- 
scribed from $-2o,(j00 to $oO,000 for a bo- 
nus, tlie company built a single-track 
rofld from Washington street to the end of 
the avenue, making the route along the 
avenue and Washington street (whicli had 
a double track from Illinois to Pennsylva- 
nia street,) to Wc^t street. The route was 
afterward liniitcd to the avenue alone, 
causing mucli dissatisfaction, and the com- 
pany subsequently changed to the old 
route, limiting it to the avenue and Ten- 
nessee street. In March, April and May, 
ISCu the Massachusetts avenue line, 
(which liad a double track,) was laid from 
Washington street up Pennsylvania, Mas- 
sachuseets avenue and New Jersey street 
to St. Clair street. In Juno, lSo7, one of 
one of the tracks on New Jersey street was 
taken up and used to extend the line on Ft- 
Wayne avenue, and thence east on Christ- 
ian avenue to College street. In October, 
li-CG, the Washington street line was ex- 
tended on Washington street and the Na- 
tional road, (which had been adopted by 
the council, September ISth, as one of the 
city streets.) to the White river bridge — 
the line to military ground having been 
taken up in 1804 after the fair. The coun- 
'■' also give the company the right to lay 
'iV^ks on all new streets. In tlie spring 
f-'l'summer of ISOU the Washington street 
line was extended east b-y single track to 
the culvert over Pogue's run. The Illinois 
street line was extended to Tinker street 
in June and July, 18CG, and the line to 
Crown Hi!!, (built by a separate company,) 
was begun in the fall of 1SC6, and opened 
for travel in April or May, IBGO. 

In tlie spring of LSGS, a new line was laid 
from Washington street down Kentucky 
avenue and Tennessee street, and east on 
Louisiana to Illinois street, being opened 
for travel in .April. The tlrst stables and 
car house were built ou Tennessee and 
Louisiana streets, in October, 18G4, and 
extended and improved in the summer of 
IfeGT. After the first lines were built and 

opened, the company placed about thirty 
two horse cars upon them, and continue^l 
using them with drivers and conductors 
till April, 18G8. At one time an ctibrt was 
made to dispensewith conductors, hut after 
trial for some days, the company resolved to 
adopt a different car. Tliirty or thirty- ' 
two one-horse cars, requiring a driver only, 
were procured during the spring of 18G8, ' 
and placed on the different lines on the 
3rd of .April. Tlie driver now merely fur- ; 
nishes change, the passengers themselves 
place the fare in safety boxes. The cars . 
are turned on turn-tables at each end of 
the route, and trips -ire mtide at greater 
speed than under the old system. The old 
cars are used only on the Crown Hill route, 
or in case of pic-nics, or unusual demands 
on the rolling stock of the company. A 
portion of them have^beeu sold, eighteen 
or twenty only being left at the present 
time. Mules are now almost exclusively 
used by the company. No bouldering has 
been done by the company on their tracks, 
except where they run along bouldered 
streets, as it is claimed that bouldered 
streets injured and crippled the aniriials. 

Five hundred and fifty round trips are 
run, and four thousand passengers carried 
over the lines daily. 

At present, including the Crown Hill 
line from Tinker street, and including side 
and double tracks, the company have about 
fifteen mile? of finished and equipped road, 
costing S4G8,000. They also own fifty cars, 
employ sixty-four men, and one liundred 
and fifty mules and horses. The enterprise 
has not been as profitable as it v.-as expect- 
ed to be. but with the future increase of the 
city, its success will be assured. 

k. B. Catherwood in September or Octo- 
ber ISGo, sold the controlling interest in the 
company to Messrs. English, Alvord and 
others. A reorganization took j'lace, E. S. 
.Alvord becoming President, K.F.Fletcher, 
Secretary, W. II. English, Treasurer, and 
H. H. Catherwood, Superintendent. J. S. 
.Alvord is the present Secretary, and II. F. 
Fletcher, Superintendent. 

A tornado swept across the St.ate from 
west to east in the afternoon of .May 20th, 
18G0, passing just south-east of this city, 
between 5 and G o'clock, p. m. It was a' 
rapidly moving, whirling cloud, of small 
diameter, described by those who witnessed 
it. as hanging from or cutting th.rough the 
clouds above and around it, swaying about 
like an elephant's trunk, rising and falling 
as it sped forward. Considerable damage 
was done to houses, timber, gardens and 
fences in its path. The residence of Gard- 
ner Goldsmith, at the end of Virginia 
avenue, was thrown from its foundation 
and partially destroyed, and Goldsmith was 



seriously injured. It was much more de- 
structive both east and west, however, tlian 
near this city. 

Great preparations were made for the 
celebration of the fourth of July, the peo- 
ple feeling that it might perhaps be the last 
under a united government. The proces- 
Bion included five bands, the entire lire de- 
partuieut witli beautifully decorated en- 
gim.'3 and reels, three military companies, 
the butchers, gardeners, various societies, 
and a long line of cariiages. The usual 
exercises took place at the fair grounds. 
A very large frame building had just been 
completed on University square, by Mr. 
Perrine, and in the afternoon the military 
conniauics drilled there for a prize of ;J100. 
A balloon ascension by J. <]. Bellman, took 
place at 4 o'clock, p. m. He rose to a great 
hight, and landed ten miles from the city. 
The best display of fire works ever given 
here took place at night in the enclo- 
sure. The '■Coliseum" — as it was termed — 
could accommodate fifteen or twenty thou- 
sand persons, being, perhaps, the largest 
structure of the kind ever built in this 
country. It was torn down some weeks 

Tlie political struggle of this j'car was 
unprecedented in its interest and bitter- 
ness, each party holding repeated monster 
conventions and torcli-light processions; 
every elfort being made by each to surpass 
the last display by the opposite party. The 
democrats held a great meeting at the State 
house yard on the Stli of July, George E. 
Pugh and C. L. Vallandigham being the 
leading Speakers. The reiniblicans far 
eurpassed this demonstration on the 20th 
of August, at the old fairground, Ccrwin, 
Blair, Stanton, Lane, .Morton and oiliers 
being the speakers. A great procession 
marched thither in the. day time, aiid at 
night a torch-light procession, whicls in- 
cluded several thousand ^Yide Awakes, 
formed on University square, and filed 
through the principal streets, saluted tslong 
its line of march with a constant bl:s:,e of 
fire works and illuminations. This deaion- 
stration was equalled if not surpassed by 
the democrats on the '2Sth of September. 
Much money had been spent by thezi in 
tasteful arches and other d-^coraiions, and 
the display was a very grand one. L'DUg- 
lass, H. \ . Johnson, and other leadeirs of 
the party were present, and delivered ad- 
dresses at the fair ground. Tliere wis a 
grand torch-liglit procession at night, ip'l 
the fire works and illuminations equaled 
if they did not surpass tite display bj the 
republicans. The crowds in attendance 
at tliesB conventions were to be mea5ared 
only by the acre, and sufficiently demon- 
strated the perfection and extent of our 

railway system. At no other place in tlie 
country could such immense throngs have 
been concentrated or dispersed so readily 
as at this point. 

The first rope-walking exhibition here 
was given in September, by Theodore Price, 
in the presence of an immense crowd, the 
rope being stretched from the roof of (he 
Palmer house to that of the Bates house. 
Several subsequent exhibitions have oc- 
curred, the most notable and dangerous 
one occurring in the summer of lbO'>. on a 
rope stretched from the roof of Blackford's 
block to that of Yohn's block. 

The Escott and Miranda Opera Troupe 
sang at the theatre in January. A musical 
convention was held at Masonic Hall in 
September. Bayard Taylor and Henry J. 
Raymond lectured there in February. Lola 
-Montez lectured there for several nights, 
beginning February "23. In the fall and 
winter, Bayard Taylor, Prof. Voumaus. J. 
B. Gough, Dr. Robt! J. Breckinridge, G. W. 
Winship and others, lectured before the 
Young Men's Christian Association. Saliio 
St. Clair appeared at the Metropolitan for 
a few nights in February. 

In view of the threatening aspect assu- 
med by the southern States, and the lack 
of patriotism displayed by them, it was 
deemed proper by the asssmbly to unfurl 
the American flag froni the State Ilousa 
dome, and the ceremony was fixed for the 
■22d of January, ISGl. A tiag stafi" and 
large flag were prepared. Extensive ar- 
raugemenis were made, the military, the 
firemen, city and State authorities, and 
citizens paraded. The preliminary exer- 
cises were concluded, and the fiog was 
started up in presence of a vast and ex- 
pectant crowd, when the staff broke, and, 
with the flag, tumbled down the dome to 
the roof. The crowd dispersed silently, 
deeming the event ominous of comisir 
trouble. A new staff however was aft'. - 
ward procured, and the flag successf .. ■; 
raised, but with less display and enthusi- 

18 6 1-8. The First Baptist church, on 
the corner of Maryland and Meridian 
streets, was burned during a great snow 
storm, on the night of January 27th, loGl, 
presencing a sad but magnificent spectacle 
as the flames burst from the roof, and 
wrapped round the spire, which soon top- 
pled and plunged downward through the 
roof. The fire was supposed to have caught 
from a defective flue. The loss was a se- 
rious blow to the church. The first build- 
ing occupied by the congregation was a 
small one-story brick structure, on the 
same site, built in 1S29 or 1830, and hold- 
ing two hundred and fifty or three hundred 
I persons. The small bell then used was 




placed in a separate frame tower at one | line at least may be presented of tlie lead- 
eud of the house. This building was torn [ ing events. 

away, and the house which was now just] The news of the attack upon Fort Fiini- 
destroyed was built there in 1651 or li>o'I. ' ter reached the city Apiil 12th, and at 
Tiie first spire was built in the telescopic j once produced the profoundest feeling. — 
form usual in countr\' towns, the upper i Business was suspended, and every one 
portion being finished inside of tlie lower, ; eager for the latest intelligence. During 
and hoisted by tackle to its proper eleva- ; the afternoon a handbill was posted calling 
lion. It had just been lioisied to its place I a meeting at the court house, and at tlie 
duiing a hot summer afternoon, and the i appointed hour the room was thronged. 

An adjournment was voted to Masonic 
Hall, and the excited crowd, now nionien- 
tarily augmenting, rolled down Washing- 
ton street. The hall was at once filled, as 
well as the theatre and the intervening 

workmen were still on it, when a sudden 
thuuder gust came up, and the spire being 
iusufiic'ently stayed, the guy ropes parted 
and it turned a somersault, coming point 
down on the pavement in front of the 

building, narrowly missing a team and i street. The American llag was produced 
wagon, and shattering itself into splinters, t and greeted with deafening cheers. Speech- 
The men at work on it had barely time ; es were made at the several meetings, bit- 
enough to get oft" before it went over. An- | ter resolutions were adopted, and volun- 
other spire was afterward built, but in a j teering at once begun. The throng dis- 
ditferent way. I persed at a late hour, excited and enr.iged 

The congregation, after the destruction ! over the news that the Fort had been sur- 

of the church, sold the lot (which is n^^w 
occupied by SchnuU's block,) and purcha- 
sed the lot on the north-east corner of 
Pennsylvania and New York streets, and 

rendered. On the following day the Greys, 
Guards, Independent Zouaves, Zouave 
Guards, and a light artillery company be- 
gan recruiting. Flags were everywhere 

in lSfJ2 erected the present large brick ed- 1 displayed, and the fife and drum hoardat 

ifice upon it. I every corner. The president s proclamation 

„ -J i r- 1 • 1 I, -„ „„ ik^ for seventy-five thousand men appeared 

President Lincoln arrived here on the i . , .•'. , . • n *• 

,.-, , r n I ici^i V- „ . .v.^ i on the loth, and the governors call tor 

12th of February, Ifcbl, on his way to the . . ' ,, ... '',. , .. ,^,, 

, •. 1 1 ■ "i .1, SIX regiments trom this btate, on the Ibth. 

nation^il capital, and was received as the rr.i .^ . r • i i .u 

,..,.' 1 c . I • , . The fctate fair ground was chosen as the 

guest ot the city and biate, being met at | , ^ 

:• c. . 1- A . 1 .1 -.1 „ v.. ^ i rendesvous. 

me State line, and escorted thither by a 

coniinitlee. He left the Lafayette train at 

"Washington street, and was escorted to the , ^ , • ., v,- . n <• .' •. 

,, , ..'^ , ., ' •,.. v„ fi.^ 1 qns'rtered in the public halls oi tne city. 

Bates House by the military companies, nre I "1, . „ u i i \ i„ 

•' J t 1 . (j^mpfinies from abroad were also hourly 

arriving, greeted by cheers and the firing 

It was named Camp Morton, 
and on the 10th and ITth the city compa- 
nies moved there, having meanwhile been 

department, State authorities, and a vast 
crowd of citizens. In a short speech from 
the balcony of the Bates House, he out- 
lined his future policy with regard to the 
rebellion, and held a reception during the 
cvcLing, leaving for the east next morning. 
Several meetings of conservative repub- 
licans were held at the court house in Feb- 

of cannon, and were sworn in at the State 
House and sent to camp. In a few days 
eight or ten thousand men had reported 
for duty. Had sixty, instead of six, regi- 
ments been demanded, the call would have 
been almost as readily filled. Our own 
companies were full and others forming. 

luary and March, to urge a compromise of I ^onje guards were organized for each 
th.e existing political ditferences, and the i ^^j-d. Every one was anxious to contrib- 
settlement of the controversy by making! ^te, and blankets, food and clothing were 
concessions to the South. The sessions i (.QUpcted by the wagon load for the men 
■were stormy, in consequence of the at- ! y^j suddenly collected with no provision 
tendance of the more radical njen, who felt | f^j. i^pij. comfort. The ladies formed so- 
tjiat the time for all compromise had pas- I (.{gjigg ^.^^ materially assisted in this 
fied, and before any definite action or j ,(,-qj.j5._ r^j^g enthusiasm was wonderful : 
course was decided en by the meetings, i jj^^ ^g^l^ f,^;tt, and courage, sublime. The 
the acts of the rebels transferred il"-e dis- 1 ^^^ ^igj-j.^j aud men were superabundant, 
cussion from the forum to the field. There ; j^jjj ^^^ excess made the labor of the au- 
■was then no further talk of compromise, I ^horities all the more difficult. Everything 
and those who had urged it became earnest i j^j^jj ^q ^^ learned by a people unacquain- 
and active in the war. j j^^j with vfar, and for some time contusion 

It can scarcely be expected that a full ' reigned supreme. Order, however, was 
histcry of the part taken by this city in I gradually restored, the six regiments were 
the war can be given in the limits of an | organized and brigaded, and the work of 
article like this. It could only be properly j drilling and equipping them began, 
dealt with in a volume. But a brief out- On the 24lh of April Stej'hen A. Doug- 

io J 



lass visited the city and made a speech. 
He weut to Camp. Morton, visiting the I 
troops and arousing great enthusiasm i 
among thon). i 

Some feeling arising concerning the 
support of the familiee of soKliers during } 
their absence, the City Council, on the 20111 i 
of April, voted an appropriaiioa of $10,- I 
000 for their m".iuten:ince. 

Seven companies Tvore formed here under j 
this call, the most of them being in the ! 
eleventh regiment under Col. Lew Wallace. | 
They ^ere moved in a few days to the old ! 
Bellefontaine depot, uniformed soon after i 
and persistently drilled. Stands of col- 
ors were presented to them at the State j 
House -on behalf of the ladies, and feeling j 
like old troops ihej- clamored for service. | 
They ^^eve accordingly sent to Evans ville, 
(ostensibly to guard the borJer,) ou the i 
9th of .May. The excess of troops report- I 
ing Jiere, over the six regiments called for j 
by the Government, were organized under { 
State authority in six one year regiments j 
for the State service, but were soon after 
re-enlisted, (except one regiment of one 
year men,) for three years and all trans- 
ferred to tlie Federal service. The six 
regiments of trcops under the first call 
were reviewed by General G. B. .McClel- 
lan in the fields north-west of the military 
grounds, (then occupied by the State 
troops nnJ known as Camp Sullivan,) on 
the 24th of May. Hq shortly after ordered 
th.em into active service in West Virginia, 
where they participated actively and ef- 
fectively in the campaign. Tlie eleventh 
regiment, meanwhile. wa3 left at Evans- 
vjUe, but growing tired of tlieir position, 
an order was obtained from Wasliington 
transferring them to Cumberland, Mary- 
land. They afterward joined Patterson's 
army, participating in the movements of 
that force prior and subsequent to the bat- 
tle of Bull run. The three months regi- 
ments were discharged, returned home, but 
shortly afterward were again rendesvoused 
here to re-enter the three years service. 
Tb.eir old organizations were maintained, 
although the regiments were mostly com- 
posed of new recruits. The State troops, 
meanwhile, had been transferred to the 
Federal service and sent to the Held, and the 
additional regiments afterward called for 
by the Government were gathering here 
and elsevrhere. The nineteenth Reg- 
ular regiment, added with others to the 
army by President Lincoln, rendesvoused 
here and was gradually growing in 
strength. It remained here till the fall of 
ISG'J, when its head-quarters were trans- 
ferred to Detroit. 

After the first flurry arising from the 
Budden concentration of the three months 

volunteers and the State troops at this 
point was over, and they had gone to the 
field, the work progressed more quietly 
and methodically. Tho anxiety to enter 
to the service was greater than tlie de- 
mand for troops, and some trouble was ex- 
perienced in securing permission to raise 
additional regiments. After the three 
months troops were re-organized as three 
years men, however, additional regiments 
were demanded, and recruits for the hist 
organizations were constantly called for. 
They were very readily obtained without 
local bounties, for business had been very 
dull since the preceding winter, and hun- 
dreds of men were out of work. This 
stagnation in general business continue 1 
here until the winter of lst)2 and spring 
of lbC3, when, from the Government de- 
mand for various articles, and the scarcity 
of workmen, high wages began to be de- 
manded, and volunteering decreased. Uni- 
forms had been scarce on the streets after 
the first regiments left. They afterward 
began to multiply, and from the capture 
of Ft. Donelson till after the close of the 
war they constantly became more numer- 
ous, until the city at last was a heavily 
garrisoned post. During the late fall and 
winter of lb j1, however, the skeleton nine- 
teenth Regular regiment constituted the 
main force here, and their perfect disci- 
pline and fine dress parades, with the 
added attraction of their full regimental 
band, drew crowds of admiring spectators. 
The twentieth regiment and several bat- 
teries were rendesvoused here and camped 
on the commons north-west of Camp Sulli- 
van. The twenty-sixth and thirty-third 
and other regiments subsequently occupied 
Camp Sullivan. The drafted m.en were 
also placed there in 1SG2-3. The fifty- 
seventh regiment occupied a camp or- the 
canal west of tho Lafuyette depot, and la- 
ter organizations, recruits and dralted 
men were sent to Camp Carrington. In 
.\ugust 18G2 a further call for troops was 
made. Bragg and Kirby Smith were ad- 
vancing on Louisville. Great etlorts were 
made to fill the quota, and good bounties 
offered for recruits. A draft was ordered 
and the preparatory enrollment was made, 
but before it took place the requisition 
was filled. The seventieth and seventy- 
ninth regiments were raised at that time, 
raainlv in this district, and hurried to 
Louisville. They served to tho cjose of 
the war, participating in Sherman's cam- 
paign against Atlanta and the _ march 
to the sea. No unusual war excitement 
disturbed the city from this dale until 
early in July 1803. 

It was then announced by tlie papers 
that John Morgan had crossed the Ohio 



river, and later iu tlie dav news came that 
he was rapidly moving toward this city, to 
release the prisoners. The fire bells were 
rung, and a vast crowd collected at tlie 
Bates ho;ise. The governor aiinounccd tlie 
news, and reconimeoded the immediate ces- 
sation of business, and the formation of 
military companies. It was resolved to 
form companies in each ward, and recruit- 
ing at once began. Dispatches were sent 
elsewhere calling for aid. The next morn- 
ing martial law was declared, business 
ceased, the ward companies were sworn in- 
to the State legion, and a regiment twelve 
hundred strong organized under Colonel 
Ilugg, armed, equipped and constantly 
drilled. It met that night on University 
square, to receive blankets, accoutrements 
and ammunition, and was ordered to navch 
next day. During this and tlie two follow- 
ing days, companies and regiments were 
coming by rail from all parts of the Srate, 
and a considerable army v.-as extemporized. 
The excitement and enthusiasm increased 
liourly, surpassing any thing seen duiing 
the war. Other regiments were organized 
and sent to meet the enemy, but the city 
regiment was persistently marched and 
drilled on University square and else- 
where, attaining very creditable proficiency 
iri forty-eight hours. Signals were estab- 
lislied by the fire bells, for the regiment to 
start on the campaign, and they were thus 
called together about ivvice a day. The 
v.arriors parted so frequently from their 
wives and sweetliearts that they grew 
tired of it, and finally left for the seat of 
war on University square at each alarm, 
without a thought of those they left be- 
hind. The artillery and cavalry wings of 
tlie regiment meanwhile were executing 
various manoeuvres not laid down in any 
system of tactics, sometimes putting the 
infantry in great bodily fear. Morgan 
soon turned eastward, but the regim:nt 
continued its martial exercises for several 
days afterward, and rapidly attained celer- 
ity and precision in marching and in the 
manual of arms. The organization was 
continued fir two or three months, and 
in September an effort was made to uni- 
form it and the police guards at the ex- 
pense of the city, but it failed, and the 
force disbanded shortly afterward. Its 
services in the Morgan raid were after- 
ward paid for by the State. The sudden 
organization of, and the immediate profi- 
ciency attained by this regiment conclu- 
sively proved that the people can be fully 
relied ou in any emergency. 

Recruiting went on steadily from this 
date, tlie city's quota always being supplied 
with reasonable promj)tness, but late in 
the fall anotlicr draft was expected, and 

the citizens held a meeting on the 11th of 
December, asking the council to appro- 
priate a sufficient sum to pay >;iO of boun- 
ty to each recruit who might be credited to 
the township. On tlie 1-lth of December 
the council accordingly appropriated S"--^)- 
000 for that object, ordering the sale of 
bonds to that amount to raise the money. 
The bonds were prepared and sold in a few 
days, and recruiting went on with more 
activity. Committees were appointed, and 
funds raised in each ward to add to tlie 
bounty, and the required number of men 
was soon obtained. 

During the winter of 1SC3-'G4, and the 
following summer, the old veteran regi- 
ments were returning on thirty day fur- 
loughs for recreation and recruiting, before 
re-entering the service. One or more of 
them arrived every week, and were suita- 
bly received by the State and city authori- 
ties, the council having appropriated mon- 
ey for that purpose. Many recruits were 
obtained here for their ranks, and the 
Seventeenth Regiment re-enlisted and were 
credited, in a body, to this city. On learn- 
ing that our quota had been filled, they 
confirmed their action regardless of bounty, 
but on the 8th of March Colonel Wilder 
asked the council to grant it to them. A 
committee reported against it, but the coun- 
cil, after further consideration of the sub- 
ject, passed an ordinance on tlie I4th of 
.March, appropriating :J5,355 in bounties to 
the regiment. An attempt was afterward 
made to have this sum increased, but with- 
out success. 

The campaign against Atlanta having 
begun, and the governors of lilinois, Indi- 
ana and Ohio having tendered a heavy 
force of one hundred day men to guard the 
lines of communication, a call was issued 
for troops for that, term. The response not 
being very prompt, ward meetings were 
held, asking the council to appropriate 
bounties to those who might enlist under 
the call, and on the 9th of May $5,000 were 
appropriated for the maintenance of the 
families of one hundred day men, the sum 
to be disbursed by the Soldier's Aid Com- 
mittee. Recruiting was actively prose- 
cuted, and the city regiment was shortly 
raised, equipped and sent to Alabama un- 
der Colonel Vance, Lt. -Colonel Cramer and 
Major Bates. It was assigned to duty 
along the line of communication, and after 
the expiration of its term was sent home, 
discharged and paid OiT. 

From this date recruiting became more 
difiicult, and larger bounties were required. 
The demand for labor had increased the 
rates of wages, and few persons were out 
of work. Five hundred thousand more 
men were called for, and as the response 




•was not satisfactory, preparations were 
made for a draft. The enrollment in June, 
1864, showed seven thousand five hundred 
and seventy-three men suVject to draft in 
the city, and the quota was fixed at one 
thousand two luindred and fifty-nine. Ef- 
forts to fill it by recruiting were made, and 
meetings were held in the wards and in the 
tabernacle on Court square, to secure sub- 
scriptions to pay bounties. Forty or tifty 
thousand dollars were subscribed and paid 
to recruits, but the requir^^d number was 
not obtained in time, and the draft took 
place September 25th, for about four hun- 
dred and fifty men. Drafted men's meet- 
ings were repeatedly held afterward, and 
great efforts made to raise money. Sixty 
or seventy thousand dollars more being 
subscribed by them, the council on the 2Sth 
of September, appropriated S'.j2,000 to as- I 
sist them, and on the 3d of October $40,000 \ 
more were appropriated. The c\ty clerk ; 
was directed to collect the subscriptions of, 
the citizens. Mayor Caven used every | 
means to assist the work and by strenuous | 
exertions the required number of volun- 
teers were secured in October and Xovem- 1 
ber, and the drafted men relieved at a cost j 
of nearly 8180,000. Much complaint had i 
been made prior and subsequent to the I 
draft, of the incorrect enrollment on which ! 
it was made, and that the city and town- ' 
ship were drafted together, compelling the j 
city to expend $20,0'. '0 beyond its propor- j 
tion, to relieve the township. The council 
on the 12 ih of December, appointed a com- 
mittee to revise and correct tlie lists, and 
secure a correct enrollment. 

The Prcfident, on the 20th of December, 
again called for three hundred thousand I 
men, directing a draft if it was not filled 
by volunteers. Mayor Caven, on the 28th, 
recommended the Council to appropriate 
$00,000 for bounties, at $150 each, for re- 
cruits. TJie Council, after consideration 
of the subject, ordered the balance of the 
appropriation, §2,500, to be paid, and ap- 
propriated $20,000 in adilition for the 
same purpose. On the 2i of January, 
18'j5, the .Mayor again urged an appropri- 
tion to pay S150 bounty for volunteers, 
and the appointment of ward committees 
to sell orders and raise funds. He also 
urged the correction of the enrollment 
lists, and that the city be drafted sepa- 
rately by wards. The (^ouneil at once re- | 
sponded, by appropriating ?125,000, to be I 
paid in $150 bounties and $10 premium 
f'.'r recruits. On t!io 5th of Januiry they 
authorized the bounties to be increased to i 
v2m0, and sent Hon. John Coburn to' 
"ashicgton to secure a draft by wards, j 
•le succeeded in his mission, and the 
Jraft was afterward so made. Commit- 

tees were also appointed for each ward, to 
sell city orders, or warrants. On the loth 
special committees were appointed to sec 
if the bounties could be increased iu 
amount, and to urge the Legislature to so 
amend the charter that loans might be 
made directly to pay bounties. On the 
17th committees were appointed to super- 
intend recruiting and assign the men rro 
rata to each ward. Tiie time fixed for the 
drafc was rapidly approaching, the quota 
was large and unfilled, the citizens grew 
excited, and many of thorn turned their 
attention to recruiting. In February the 
Council appropriated .$400 to each man 
who might be drafted, provided he had 
purchased a $50 order before the draft. 
After the draft occurred they confirmed 
the grant, ordering the money to be paid 
at once to those who furnished substitutes, 
and in installments to those who were 
compelled to serve. The Council liad 
furnished twelve hundred cords of wood 
to soldiers families in August, 1864, and 
now gave $3,500 more for the same pur- 
pose. On the 20th of February, tliree 
thousand sis hundred citizens p;etitioned 
the Council to ctTect a loan sut:icient to 
pa)' all orders, bounties, .kc. The petition 
v."as deferred for more names, and on the 
22d, seven hundred and seventy-two more 
were reported. A resolution offered by- 
Mayor Caven was adopted, authorizing a 
loan of $400,000 in bonds of $50, $100, 
$500 and $1,000 each, signed by the 
Mayor and Clerk, at such rate of interest 
semi-annually, as might be lawful where 
the bonds were payable. A special tax 
levy was to be made to pay interest and 
form a sinking fund to meet the princip ^1. 
Messrs. Brown, Coburn and Jamison were 
appointed a committee to prepare and ne- 
gotiate the bonds. They did so. The 
bonds were sent to New York, where they 
remained unsold for several months, and 
were then recalled, cancelled, and the 
committee discharged. 

Tlie quota not being filled, the draft 
took place, by wards, on the 25th of Feb- 
ruary, The Council at once ordered the 
loan committee to borrow .$100,000 from 
the banks, at one percent., at four mouths, 
with privilege of renewal, depositing or- 
ders at sixty cents on the dollar as secu- 
rity, the orders to be sold by the banks on 
ten days notice, if the debt was not paid. 
On the" Gth of March this was reconsid- 
ered, and_^the Treasurer ordered to borrow 
SlOO.OOO "from the banks, at one per cent., 
for four months, v.'ith privilege of renewal, 
depositing bonds and orders at seventy- 
five cents on the dollar, as security, giving 
the banks the privilege of selling at ten 
days notice, if the debt was not paid. 



The loan -was taken by Fletcher's, Har- 
risons', the Citizens' Natiouril, First Na- 
tional and Indianapolis National Banks, 
$20,000 from each, and tlie money thus re- 
alized was appropriated at once to bounties. 
The drafted men were now very active in 
Eecuring recruits. 0;uces were opened in 
the Council chamber and elsewhere, $400 
bouuiies were paid, a number of substi- 
tutes were furnished, and tlie quota was 
nearly tilled, when it was announced that 
on a rcvisal of the lists of credits, the 
quota was entirely filled, and with several 
hundred to spare. Counties at once fell 
from $400 to $100, bub the work was 
stopped, and $l!5,000 to $30,000 of the 
fund saved. All felt, however, thai the 
lists should have been revised before the 
draft was made, and a heavy e:cpenditure 
tiius avoided. The war ended four weeks 
afterward, and no further recruits were 
needed. The city and citizens had spent 
about $700,000 in the past ten months, 
in bounties for troops, and expenses con- 
nected with the war. 

The government immediately began the 
reduction of the army. Sick and conva- 
lescent troops, new recruits, drafted men, 
Quarter-masters' employees and others 
were at once discharged. The rebel pris- 
oners were released and sent home. The 
veteran regiments rapidly returned and 
were mustered out. The veteran reserve 
corps dwindled to a skeleton organization, 
and by the close of the year the ninth 
regiment of Hancock's corps constituted 
almost the entire force stationed in tlie 
city. Tlie camps were abandoned and 
the property sold. The liouses were re- 
moved elsewhere, and by the summer 
of 1860 a uniform was rarely seen on the 
streets. The return of the veteran troops 
kept up the excitement for some time, and 
caused great activity in trade, but as the 
great floating population of the past three 
years dwindled in number, and the gov- 
ernment demand for supplies ceased, the 
difference in the throng on the streets was 
soon perceptible, and the town grew dull. 

Eslcnsivecaiaps, liospitals, barracks, sta- 
bles tvnd other structures were built by the 
government during the war; the most 
prominent of these may be mentioned 

Camps Morton and Sullivan had been 
occupied by llie three-months men and 
State troops while organizing and preparing 
for the iield, and Hie last named camp had 
afterward been suflicient for the regiments 
subsequently organized, Camp Morton be- 
ing unused; but after the capture of Fort 
Donelson, when several thousand rebel 
pirisouers were sent to this point, addi- 
tional troop.s and camps were at once need- 

ed. Camp Morton was then fitted up as a 
prison camp. It was surrounded with a 
high, tight fence and sentry walk; addi- 
tional buildings were added from time to 
time, and the defenses strengtliened, until 
at last it was as complete in its appoint- 
ments as any other in the country. More 
than five thousand prisoners were occa- 
sionally confined in it, and many thou- 
sands during the war. Among its inmates 
were the greater part of Morgan's men, 
captured after their celebrated raid through 
Indiana and Ohio. Toward the close of 
the war many of these men, becoming con- 
vinced that their cause was lost, enlisted 
in the Union army for service against the 
Indians ;. others took the oath of allegiance 
and were discliarged, and several thousand 
were released and sent home after the war 
j ended. 

I The prisoners were guarded at first by the 
j Nineteenth regulars, but troops were 
I afterward detailed to that duty, and some 
I regiments were raised for that special ser- 
vice. Temporary camps for the guards 
I were at first established near the prison; 
j but after the invalid corps (afterward the 
j veteran reserve,) were detailed to guard 
duty, camps of a more permanent clir.rac- 
ter were built, requiring many thousunds 
of feet of lumber. Camp Burnside, just 
I south of the prison, grew into a large, 
I populous, well arranged and well built 
I village by the end of the war. The vet- 
I eran corps guarding the rebels o:;cupied 
this camp — many of the otTicers and men 
i having their families with them. Camp 
] Carrington, formerly a temporary airair, 
I and afterward one of the best arran- 
I ged and constructed camps near tlie city, 
[ was mostly built in 1864. It was at a 
\ considerable distance to the west of the 
; prison, near the Lafayette road. i,iud was 
I mostly occupied by recruits, new regiments 
an<( drafted men. Camp Sullivan, on the 
I military grounds, was not so extensive, 
; well built or arranged as the two former. 
It had been occupied by the State troops, 
and afterward by new regiments, transient 
j troops and drafted men. 
I As the war progressed and this point 
; became more important as a depot of sup- 
j plies, troops and prisoners, all these camps, 
i with others in and around the city, were 
I constantly occupied. Among other im- 
portant establishments the Soldiers' Home 
, founded in 1S6'2, for the accommodation of 
', transient soldiers, soon became prominent, 
1 and was greatly enlarged before the war 
j ended. It was in cliarge of the veteran 
reserve corps at first, and afterward in 
I that of the Ninth regiment of Hancock's 
I corps. Single sohliers, squads, detach- 
I ments, and regiments of troop?, passing 



through or temporarily stopping in tlie 
city, were accomuiodaled vrith lod2;ing aud 
cooked food in this estahlishmeat, and it j 
■ftfis of great service when the veteran regi- i 
Dients were returning on furlough during i 
• he war, and at its close, when they return- i 
cd for discharge. 

In addition to camps Carringlon, Burn- | 
side, Sullivan and the vSoldiera" Home, a I 
cavalry camp was established near the ' 
city; and when the negro regiment was ! 
authorized late in the fall of ISoS, Camp I 
Fremont was temporaril}' established in ! 
Fletcher's woods, south-east of the city. | 
The government, in 1SG4, took the old j 
Bellefontaine depot, in the north part of 
the ninth ward, and fitted it up as an ex- 
tensive stable to accommodate the thou- 
sands of artillery, cavalry and wagon 
horses, bought and brought to this jioint; 
and for the storage, also, of the necessary 
grain and forage. Barraclcs were also added 
for the many teamsters and quarter-mas- 
ters' employees in service hei-e. 

It was proposed early in 1S65 to aban- 
don all the government camps, prisons, 
stables and hospitals then in use in and 
around the city, and construct new, more 
extensive and better arranged ones several 
miles out in the country. The site was 
selected, the plan approved by the aufhori- 
lies at Washington, and the order prepared, 
but before it was issued, the war lermina- 
tel, and the new buildings v.ere not 

\Vhen the war tirst began and the three- 
months troops coUecied here, but few arms 
and still less ammunition could be sup- 
plied. It was evident that ammunition 
Viould have to be fabricated, and Herman 
Sturm applied to the Governor for au- 
thority to manufacture it for the State. 
Permission was granted in May, and with 
one or tvro assistants, lie immediately be- 
gan making musV:et balls and cartridges 
at .McLaughlin's ganshop, on east Wash- 
ington street. Tiie demand soon extended 
the business, and a small frame structure 
was erected in Juiy and occupied in Au- 
gust, north of the State-house. -A.dditional 
buildings were soon erected and the num- 
ber of workmen increased; but the facili- 
ties were not equal to the rapidly growing 
dem.and, and a removal took place to Ott's 
building, on Washington street, south of 
the State-house. It remained there some 
time, and was then removed to buildings 
specially designed for it east of the city. 
It had grown from a small beginning to 
great proportions : several hundreds of per- 
sous were employed, and vast amounts of 
artillery and sn)all-arm ammunition were 
daily fabricated — the armies of the 
being largely supplied by it. It filled 

a pressing want early in the war: but the 
government having established ati arsenal 
liete, and ammunition being largelj* nii.n- 
ufactured elsewhere, the State institution 
was discontinued in 1S54, 

The national government in ISOl deter- 
mined to found a number of arsenals in 
the west, one of them being located here. 
Eighty acres of ground were bouglu north- 
east of and adjoining the city, plans adopt- 
ed for the buildings and improvements, and 
Captain Jas. .M. Whittemore, of the regular 
army, appointed commandant and superin- 
tendent. The improvements, consistiiicr of 
buildings for the storage of small aniis and 
accouterments, artillery and wagons, offi- 
cers' quarters, magazines, barracks, fen- 
cing, grading, kc, were begun in 16'i'>2, 
and have been prosecuted to the present 
time, and are now nearly completed, at a 
cost of several hundred thousand dollars. 
The buildings are large, well planned and 
perfectly constructed. .All the improve- 
ments are of the best design, materials, 
and finish. Large amounts of arms artil- 
lery, ammunition, and other government 
property, are now stored there. The NVal- 
lace building, on Delaware and Maryland 
streets, was used during the war as the U, 
S. Arsenal anrl storehouse. Wni. Y. Wiley 
was appointed military store-keeper. Capit. 
Whittemore served as commander an'i su- 
perintendent tillthe close of the, be- 
ing then relieved by brevet Col. W. II. 
Harris, the present commander. An arse- 
nal guard of about thirty men was enlist- 
ed for that special duty in 1SG4, and is 
now stationed there. 

The tinancial condition of the city was 
greatly influenced by the war, and it is be.^t, 
perhaps, to consider it in connection with 
our war history; though, in doing so, 
many facts already given in the statement 
of the war movements will necessarily be 

It is now impossible, from loss of re- 
cords, lo give a certain statement conccru- 
ing the early financial condition of the 
corporation. Tiie old books yet in exist- 
ence are in such shape that no clear idea 
can be drawn from them. It is only with- 
in a few years that a system has been 
adopted showing tlie condition of the finan- 
ces at any given time. Sucli facts for for- 
mer years as were published at the time 
are given below. 

The valuation of real and personal prop- 
erty in 1847 was about 51,000,01)0. In 
1S.50 it had risen to.s2,32t5,185; in 1^53. to 
55.131,582; in $7,140,070: in 18.:S, 
to :S10,47.5,000; in 1860, to 510,700,000: in 
l-'VJ, to S10,2.j0.O00; in lbf;.3, 510,7.30,000; 
in 1804,513,250,000; in 18o5. 520,144.447 ; 
in 1866, 524,231, 7oO; in lbo7, it sunk to 



$21,943,005. and rose in 1SC8 to $23,503,- 
GIO. Tlicse figures show the steady growth 
of tlie place, as well as the temporary 
checks it h;is experieuced. The listed 
polls in 1S47 were r.boui 400; in 1853, 
1,400; in 1857, 1,SG2; in 1800. 2,200; in 
ISOo, 3,200; in ISGrj, ,i,lii0; in ISGT, 5,300; 
in ISoS, 5,780. 

Taxation under the charter of 1847, for 
gencr il purposes, was limited to 15 cents 
on the .SlOO; but special taxes to any 
amount could be levied, if autliorized by 
the general vote. Repeated] elForts were 
made, from 1847 to 1853, to induce the 
citizens to vote special taxes for varioug 
objects: but with the exception of taxes for 
schools, clock, cisterns and to pay debts, 
the movements were generally defeated, 
and tlie entire levyjdid not exceed 45 cents 
on the $100. To avoid the trouble in re- 
gard to special taxes, the council, in 1853, 
adopted the general incorporation act as the 
city clia.rter; and though t(ie taxing power 
was thereby increased, they hesitated, in 
view of tlie general o{)position of the tax- 
payers, to materially advance the rate, 
and it did not usually go beyond GO or SO 
cents before the war. After the war be- 
gan, a different policy was necessarily 
adopted, and the people h:i,ve since become 
acquainted \fh\i heavier rates on vastly- 
increased valuations. 

The receipts and • expenditures for all 
purposes, (other than schools,) are given 
as published at the time, giving generally 
the actual current receipts without includ- 
ing balances. Tlie levy for 1847, (includ- 
ing $3G5 of delinquencies from former 
years,) amounted to $4.22o, nearly $4,000 
being realized therefrom, and the expendi- 
tures considerably exec'led the receipts. 
In 1850 the receipts were $9,327, expendi- 
tures $7,554. In 1851, receipts $10,515, 
expenses over that sum. In 1853, receipts 
$10.'jOG, expenses $7,030. $2,908 being de- 
voted to cisterns and the tire department. 
In 1804 receipts $20,500, expenses nearly 
the same. In 1S5G receipts $27,889, ex- 
penses $4G,105. In 1857 receipts $32,G97, 
expenses $31,003. In 1859 receipts $59,- 
IGS, expenses oO, 442; $10,232, being spent 
on the fire department cisterns. .$4,882 for 
police and $4,771 for gas. In 18G0 the re- 
ceipts were$87,2G2, expenses $80,172; lead- 
ingitems being for street improvements, re- 
pairs and bri'lges, .$28,790; fire depart- 
ment and cisterns, $11,353; police, $5,980; 
gas expenditures, ,$0,445. The actual cur- 
rent receipts and expenditures, (not includ- 
ing balances from former years,) and the 
leading items of expenditure, as nearly as 
they can be obtained from the reports 
from 18G1 to 18GS, are given as follows : 



o s a 
t a. 


o to 

431, CC3 

404,713 i 33,3^0 
331,525 j 52,186 
224,941 ! SG.OIS 









15 '.,197 

The old corporation authorities hnd in- 
curred a debt of a thousand or fifteen 
hundred dollars at the time the city cliar- 
tci was adopted. The street improTements 
then undertaken by the city government 
soon increased it to nearly $G,UO0, and in 
1849 a tax of ten cenis on the $100 was 
authorized by vote of the citizens to pay it. 
The proceeds of the levy almost extin- 
guished it in 1850, but iu 1851 it again 
swelled to $5,400. The increased receipts, 
however, enabled the treasury to inect cur- 
rent expenses and diminished the debt to 
$5'j7 in 1854. The eruployment in that 
year of a police force, together with the 
increased current expenses, enlarged the 

I del't to .311.000 in the spring of 1855, and 

I to $15,300 in the spring of 1856. Orders 

i were selling at a heavy discount, and the 

: reputation of the cit}' suifered. The Coun- 

; cil determined to effect a loan of $25,000 

i to meet expenses and fund the debt, and 

J having prepared the bonds, sent Jeremiah 

; D. Skeen to New York City, in August 

' 1850, as their agent to negotiate them. 

; He succeeded in hypothecating them for 

.$5,000, which ho applied to his own use, 

and after much trouble and several years 

delay, they were recovered by the city on 

paytiient, of that sum wi'h interest. Skeen 

and his sureties were sued by the city, and 

judgment finally obtained in January 



18GS, for the principal and interest of the 
defalcation. This unfortunate effort to 
sell bonds still furtlier injured the city 
credit, and the debt increased, in 1S57, to 
$23,741). A change in the charter and 
city officers took place th^it year, and a gen- 
eral tax of sixty cents was levied to meet 
expenses and debts: until that date the 
entire tax had not exceeded forty-five or 
fifty cents on the f 100. The debt was re- 
duced to 50,300 in 1S59, but swelled to 
$11,500 in 18G0, and to nearly 8"2o,000 
■when the war began. A considerable pan 
\of it was in short-time bijtids issued 'o the 
makers of the three steam fire engines 
purchased in ISOO, the bonds being the 
first that were negotiated and sold. The 
floating debt had not materially increased, 
but the growing expenditures for gas light 
and for the police department prevented 
any reduction in its amount. The salaries 
and fees of the city ofScers were also in- 
creased in May 18fJl, and the current ex- 
penses then enlarged. 

Immediately after volunteering began 
for the three months service, a demand was 
made for municipal assistance for the fam- 
ilies of soldiers, and on the '20th of April, 
§10,000 were appropriated to that object, 
and a committee apjiointed to supervise its 
distribution. From this time till the close 
of the war, many appropriations were 
made for tliispurpose, iu buying wood and 
supplying money, and the aggregate sum 
thus expended was very large. Doubts ex- 
isted whether bounties could be directly 
given by the city, and they were generality 
voted as appropriations to the soldier's 
families. The various war expenditures 
early in 18G1, soon rrtised the floating and 
bonded debt to about Siij,000, but the cur- 
rent receipts enabled the authorities to 
meet expenses, and make payments on out- 
standing liabilities, until they were re- 
duced in May, 18;j2, to about $lti,oOO. Ke- 
cvuiting becoming slack in the fall of 1SG2, 
bounties were first paid, a small appropria- 
tion being made therefor, aad about, 5.3,000 
were spent in that way by May. 18G3. 
Over 85,000 of the engine bonds had been 
paid in the meantime, and the debt reduced 
in May, 1863, toSll,250. Thi.s amount was 
practically paid oft' soon after, and a close 
calculation of the finances of the city 
would have shown her free of debt in the 
summer of 18G3. 

A rapid advance in the values of articles, 
and work, began in the spring of 1803. 
The ofTicer's salaries, and the policemen 
and firemen's wages were raised; current 
cxjicnses increased, large appropriations 
were made to the poor, and a house of re- 
fuge undertaken. To this increased ex- 
penditure was added the expense connected 

with the city regiment in the Morgan raid, 
and on the 11th of December, in response 
to the request of the citi7en3, the council 
appropriated .4;25,UO>0, to be paid in 850 
bounties to the families of recruits credited 
to the several ward?. The ordimnce was 
amended and re-passed on the l-lth of De- 
cember, and six per cent city bonds to the 
amount of 825, OUO, due in fifteen months, 
were prepared and sold within a week, and 
the money expended. No further bounty 
appropriations were made till May 0th, 
1S64, when 85,000 were given tc families of 
one hundred day men: the money to be 
paid out by the Soldier's Aid t'omniittee. 
I'y these appropriations and the largely in- 
creased current expenses for street improve- 
ments, salaries, police, gas, &c., amounting 
to 8116,000, the debt had risen in July, to 
about 880,000, the war expenses amounting 
to about 816.000. _The tax levy for 1SG4- 
-'G5, was fixed at 81 for general purposes, 
50 cents for specific objects, and 25 cents 
for soldier's families. 

The President called for 500,000 men dur- 
ing the summer, ordering a draft if the call 
was not filled by volunteers. The response 
was not as prompt as had been expected, 
and the draft took place in September. The 
mayor in August had recommended appro- 
priations be made for bounties to volun- 
teers to fill the city quota, but no definite 
action was taken at the time in regard to 
it. On the 28th of September, howevet^ 
the council appropriated 302,000 in aid of 
the drafted men; the sum to be added to 
that subscribed by the citizens prior to the 
draft, and to such sums as the drafted 
men might raise. Twelve hundred cords 
of wood were also purchased at an ex- 
pense of 88,000 for the soldiers fami- 
lies. On the od of October, 810,000 were 
appropriated in addition to the former 
sums in aid of the drafted men, and the 
city clerk was directed to collect the citi- 
zens subscriptions. During October and 
November, four hundred volunteers were 
secured at an expense to the city and citi- 
zens of about $170,000, and the entire cost 
of relieving the city from the September 
draft amounted to about 8180,000. 

Another call for 300,000 men was made 
December 20th, 1804, and a draft ordered 
in sixty days, if the call was unfilled. The 
mayor on the 28th recommended an appro- 
priation of $90,000, to be paid in SI 50 
bounties. The council appropriated 8-0,- 
000, together with an unexpended balance 
of 82,500 of former appropriations. 

The Mayor, on the 2d of January, 1SG5, 
again urged appropriations for8i'-'0 boun- 
ties, and suggested the correction of the 
enrollment lists, and the draft of the city 
by wards. The Council at once gave 

$125,000, increased the bounty to $200, 
and sent John Cuburn to Washington to 
secure a ward draft. In tlie meantime 
the competition for recruits forced boiin- 
! ties beyond $:iOO, and the Council, on the 
17th of Januarj', increased them to $4nO. 
The Legisliiture was urged to amend tlie 
incorporation law so as to authorize bounty 
loans. Committees were appointed to sell 
war warrants, to oversee recruiting, and 
assign the men pro rata to the wards. 
Four hundred dollars were to be given 
each man who bought a $50 order and 
was subsequently drafted. 

On the 2Uth of February the Council re- 
ceived a petition from three thousand 
seven hundred tax-payers, asking a loan 
to pay bounties and fund all orders, which 
were now selling at twenty to thirty cents 
discount. It was laid over for additional 
signatures, and seven hundred and sev- 
enty-two more being reported on the 22d, 
the Coiiucil authorized a loan of $-100,000 
ou twenty yeai- coupon bonds, signed by 
the Mpyor and Clerk, with interest semi- 
annually, payable in New York, and 
pledged a tax levy to pay interest and 
sink the principal. The bonds were 
drawn, signed, sent to New York, where 
they remained unsold for several months, 
and were f;nally recalled and cnucelled. 
The sale of war warrants and the work of 
recruiting actively went on in the mean- 
time, but the drafc took place, February 
25th, for nearly five hundred men. 

The Council then confirmed the gift 
of $400 to each drafted man who had 
bought S50 in war warrants, ordering it 
paid down to tliose who furnished substi- 
tutes, and ill instalments to those who 
served. A loan of $100,000 was at once 
ordered from the banks, and on the 0th of 
March the Treasurer was directed to bor- 
row $100,000, at one per cent., for four 
months, renewable if necessary, depiosit- 
ing orders and bonds at seventy-live cents 
as security, the banks having the right to 
sell them at ten days notice if the loan 
was not met. The loan was at once taken 
by the First National, Citizens National, 
Indianapolis National, and Fletcher's and 
Harrisons' banks, $20,000 each, and the 
money applied to bounties. A committee 
was appointed on the Cth of March to ex- 
amine and report whether, under the new 
law, one-fourth of the amount of the war 
debt and bonds could be added as special 
tax upon the duplicate. The Mayor on 
the Gd of April, submitted au opinion by 
James Morrison, that tlie city could fund 
her debt by bonds under the existing law. 
The strictly war expenditures (except in- 
terest) of the city, in the way of bounties, 
ended witli the February draft, the war 

j ceasing in less than four weeks after the i 
i quota was declared to be tilled. Nearly ' 
j $155,000 in war warrants were sold and | 
I iu the hands of the people. The entire | 
war expenses for the year, from May, 18G4, j 
to May, lSo5, had reached $718,17'J. , 

I The city war expenditure for the last i 
three years of the rebellion approximated | 
$1,000,000, and the municipal debt reached I 
$368,000 "it its close; $100,000 of this ! 
sum was in the shape of a bank loan, at I 
12 per cent., secured by deposit of war- I 
rants at seventy-live cents; the remainder 
consisted of six per cent, warrants, part of 
which were applicable on the payment of | 
taxes for ISuo, the rest in lSG'J-7. These 
orders were selling at twenty and thirty 
cents discount, aad as the discount was 
added in all bills against the city, the de- 
preciation was largely augmenting cur- 
rent expenses. The Council, tiierefore, 
levied a tax of $1 for general purposes, 
and fifty cents to pay the debt. The bank 
loan was renewed as it fell due, and in 
October au ordinance passed to renew it 
for a year. The unsold war bonds iu 
New York were recalled and cancelled. 
The finance committee recommended the 
election of a city Auditor, and John G. 
Waters was accordingly chosen by the 
Council, in Januar3', IfcioO, for two years ; 
the oiTice was discontinued at the expira- 
tion of his term. On the 11th of Septem- 
ber, 1SG5, the Council authorized the fund- 
ing of war orders in six per cent, three 
year bonds, and about $27,000 were so 
converted by May, 1S60. The current re- 
demption of orders in the mean time in 
taxes was large, amounting to $307, OuO at 
the close of the fiscal year, and the debt 
had decreased from $308,000 to about 
$217,000, $151,000 being paid ofl'. In 
.May, ISOG, a tax of $1.50 was levied for 
general purposes, and twenty-five cents 
for payment of debt, but in >;ovember, at 
the Mayor's suggestion, the outstanding 
six per cent, orders were funded to the 
extent of $82,000, in ten per cent, war- 
rants running eighteen months, and the 
twenty-five cent tax was struck from 
the duplicate, material!}' Icsiening the 
burthen for that year. The actual cur- 
rent receipts (excluding former balance) 
for lSGG-7, were $327,700. The expendi- 
tures (excluding bank Ipau,) $2u0,700. 
The total debt on three year bonds, ten 
per cent, warrants, and to the banks, 
amounted to $200,G00, and $122,929 of -a 
balance was left in the treasury. The 
debt had been reduced $108,787 during 
the year. The Council, iu May, 1BG7, 
voted a general tax I'or the year, of $1.25, 
and the actual current receipts on ii 
during the fiscal year, 18G7-8, (not in- 



cUidins: the balance from 1807) were 
52:31.069, the actual expenses, SC'Jo.OOO. 
Tlie bank bond and warrant debt, in May, 
ISHS, Tvaa estimated at S2-j'_',000, and the 
balance left in the trcasurj amounted to 
f'JlO/joT. The bond and warrant debt 
has since been paid at its maturity, and 
the debt now amounts to about $2tJ0,000. 
The levy for the current year was fixed at 
$1.10 for general purposes, and fifteen 
cents for sewerage. 

The war brought many rowdies here, 
and in the summer of 1S61 scarcely a day 
passed without affrays in which weapons 
were used. The police were kept busy in 
pi-eserving order. Affairs grew still worse 
in the fall of 1803, and military aid was 
invoked. A strong guar^i was detailed, 
with its headquarters at the Police office, 
and until after the war the soldiery as- 
sisted in keeping the peace. The conve- 
nient position of the place, midway be- 
tween the large western cities, made it a 
favorite rendezvous for rascals of all 
grades, and when large bounties were of- 
fered in 18G4, hundreds of thieves and 
bounty-jumpers flocked here. They were 
soon arrested or scattered by the authori- 
ties, and three of them being tried by 
court martial, and shot, near Camp Mor- 
ton, as deserters, the rest hurriedly left 
the place. 

For some time after the war began little 
or no political exciteineut existed, but at 
the democratic county convcntiou in 
Court Square, on the 2d of September, sev- 
eral of the speakers indulged in indiscreet 
expressions; equally indiscreet retorts 
were made by parties in the crowd; a per- 
sonal difficulty occurred, weapons were 
drawn, and the convention was dispersed 
by soldiers and others. The leaders were 
pursued to their homes and compelled to 
take the oath of allegiance. For some- 
time a sei'ious outbreak was threatened, 
and the Sentinel office was in danger. 
Order was finally restored by the military 
and police. The affair was discreditable 
to the city and to all engaged in it. 

On the 8th of April IBOL'. Parson Brown- 
low, of Tennessee, having just been sent 
north by the rebels, reached this city, and 
in company with General Carey, of Cin- 
cinnati, appeared before our people at the 
Metropolitan Theater, where both made 
bitter speeohes. Brownlow visite'l ilie 
city again just after tlie Piiiladeljihia con- 
vention, and made one of his characteris- 
tic I'peeches to a large audience in the 

In 1803 the democrats held a St-^te mass 
convention in the State House yard, mus- 
tering in lieavy force and generally armed. 
Anticipating an outbreak the authorities 

had taken measures to prevent it. Guarda 
were stationed on the streets, artillery 
was held in readiness, and the seventy- 
first regiment put under arms. No trouble 
occurred, farther than the arrest and fining 
of many persons for carrying concealed 
weapons. As the delegates were leaving, 
however, they began random firing from 
the cars. The Lafayette train got off, but 
those on the Central, Cincinnati and other 
roads were at once pursued by the military, 
the police and citizens. Tiic trains were 
brought back, the passengers put under 
arrest and disarmed. They were permit- 
ted to leave after a detention of some, 
hours and the confiscation of their revol- 
vers, a large number of which were turned 
over to the military. 

In August 1SG4, it was discovered that 
large quantities of arms and ammunition 
were being secretly imported into the 
State, and a seizure of four hundred navy 
revolvers and many boxes of fixed ammu- 
nition was made in II. II. Dodd's office in 
the old Sentinel building. Papers also 
were found disclosing the existence of & 
secret military organization opposed to the 
Government, and implicating prominent 
parties in the movement. Arrests of a 
number of them followed shortly afterward, 
and a military commission was convened 
here for their trial. Afrer full investiga- 
tion they were found guilty of treason and 
sentenced to be hung. The' finding was 
approved and the day fixed for execution, 
but President Lincoln reprieved them. 
President Johnson aftervvarJ ordered their 
execution, but subsequently commuted the 
punishment to imprisonment in the Ohio 
Penitentiary, from which they were after- 
tcrward discharged under a decision of the 
Supreme Cotirt. During the pendency of 
the trial 11. H. Dodd, one of the leaders in 
the scheme, made his escape from the third 
story of the po3t-offi:o building and suc- 
ceeded in reaching Canada. 

The political canvass of 1801 was earn- 
estly and enthusiastically conducted by 
the republicans, and the vote for Mr. Lin- 
coln — about twelve thousand — was the 
heaviest ever cast in this township, prob- 
ably over ten thousand five hundred vo- 
ters being residents of the city and sub- 
urbs. The meetings were held in the tab- 
ernacle, a large frame structure erected on 
the AYashington street front of Court 
Square, and capable of accommodating 
several thousand persons. This building 
remained there for a year or more, and 
was frequently used for meetings, concerts, 
lectures, etc. A similar tabernacle had 
been built for the campaign of 1800, in 
the south-west corner of the square, and 
used in the canvass of that year. It, also, 



remained standing about a year before its 
removal. Both buildinas Tvere used after 
the elections for shows and concerts. 

The threatened tioliticil troubles had se- 
rioui-'ly contracted business enterprizes 
here for several months before the war be- 
gan, and except the temporary activity im- 
parted at intervals by the arrival and 
equipmetit of the different regiments, no 
general improvement took place until bite 
in the vrinter of 18G2-3. Until that time 
many men were out of work, and from 
tliat cause volunteering was steady a,nd re- 
cruits efisily obtained. After the city was 
ntade a prison depot and garrisoned post, 
the government demand for articles and 
labor steadily increased, and as ope- 
rations in the south grew in magnitude, 
the advantageous position of the city as a 
supply depot became more evident. This 
fact attracted general attention and caused 
a rapid emigration hither, not only from 
all parts of the north, but thousands of 
southern refugees also made this their 
temporary home. The current constantly 
augmented during 1Sl>3-4. Houses could 
not be provided fast enough for the in- 
creasing throng, and cellars, garrets, and 
stables were crowded. Several families 
often shared the same tenement, and 
many persons v.'ho came here to settle were 
compelled to leave, for want of shelter for 
their families. Rents increased enormous- 
ly for business houses and dwellings, pri- 
ces being limiLod only by tlie landlord's 
conscience, or the bonus a former tenant 
would accept for his lease. House hunting 
became a serious business, and anj' tene- 
ment was gladly accepted. Many shanties 
paid fifty per cent, per annum on their 
prime cost, and the same remark could be 
truthfully made of some business rooms. 
"Work was found however for all comers. — 
Business in all lines was brisk. Every 
one had money, and fortunes were made 
in two or three years, apparently without 
effort or skill. The influx of parties from 
abroad continued till the close of the war, 
and counting all persons, permanent resi- 
dents, soldiers, prisoners, and the miscel- 
laneous floating population in and around 
the city, it would be safe, perhaps, to es- 
timate the population in March, 1865, at 
eighty thousand. 

Building though vigorousl}'' prosecuted 
during IS-JS-l and 5, was greatly limited 
by the scarcity and high price of materi- 
als, and the good wages asked and receiv- 
ed by workmen. Little material was on 
hand when the war began, and the demand 
being very limited for the first two years, 
only a small amount of it was collected, 
and it was not till the early spring of 
1SG3 that the manufacture and importation 

of lumber and other materials began on a 
large scale. Prices then rapidly advanced, 
doubling within the year. Tlie demand 
grew faster than the price. Heavy ira- 
portations of pine lumber from thelakcs 
to this point, were first made in l^'^'S, and 
for nearly a year tlie stock was compara- 
tively unsaleable, frotn the high price ask- 
ed, and the ignorance of our people with 
regard to the lumber. It had never been 
used here to any extent before that year, 
except in doors and sash brought from 
Dayton. Brick, stone and lime, also quick- 
ly rose in price, and with the rapid in- 
crease in wages, contractors lost money on 
the houses they erected Many persons de- 
sirous of building were prevented from 
doing so by the fear that the improvement 
when finished would not be worth half 
what it cost; at least that was the excuse 
given by capitalists when urged to aid 
in the improvement of the city, and by 
building houses, aft'ord homes, work, and 
business positions to tliose who were anx- 
ious to cotne here. 

The settled limits of the city were large- 
ly extended in IS'12-G, but the greatest im- 
provement was effected in filling upi vacant 
lots with houses, and crowding population 
more closely on the original plat. A rapid 
change also occurred in business localities. 
Washington street had thus far been the 
choice location for the heavier houses, the 
small retail groceries being thinly scatter- 
ed elsewhere over the city, but with the 
rapid increase and concentration of popu- 
lation, came the concentration of this re- 
tail trade at subordinate centers, a half- 
mile from the street. Meat store, tin and 
shoe shops, drug stores, and doctors ofhces, 
collected in such centers, and the retail 
trade was so far diverted from Washington 
street that most of the grocery men left it. 
The wholesale trade also generally went 
to Meridian street, leaving Washington to 
the dry goods, boot and shoe and clothing 
houses, nearly a score of the latter being 
located alon^ two or three squares. 

The sudden and unexpected terniination 
of the war closed many lines of business 
connected with it, and thousands were at 
once deprived of their usual employment. 
To these were soon added the discharged 
soldiers. Many of those thus left adrift 
were anxious to remain here, and would 
have done so had any chance been opened 
to them, but the general distrust regarding 
the future caused a rapid contraction in 
business, and the great mass were com- 
pelled to go elsewhere in search of em- 
ployment. In a few months the unaccus- 
tomed sight of vacant dwellings greeted 
the eye, and shortly alter, store rooms were 
to let. Rents grew less firm, then shaky, 

■^ 'i 




then had a downward tendency, and finally 
reached a living point; averaging nt pres- 
ent about half the war rates. 

All parties were inexpressibly shocked 
by the assassination of rresident Lincoln, 
the news being first made known at 
market on the morning of the loth of 
April, and immediately afterward by the 
tolling of the central ahirm bell, calling 
out tJie fire department and citizens. 
Business, which had begun for the day, at 
once ceased; niauufactorics closed, stores 
were shut, and without any concerted ac- 
tion, tlie people began draping their 
houses. Men with grief stricken faces 
gathered on the street, discussing the 
event. A notice calling a nieeting at the 
State House was at once posted, and by 
nine o'clock thousands were assembled 
thero. The troops stationed here were 
paraded, and marched with muffled drums 
and draped colors to the spot. The assas- 
sination and death of the President were 
officially made known, by the Governor, to 
the excited throng. Speeches wore made 
in eulogy of the dead President by lead- 
ers of both parties, and resolutions 
adopted, pledging the support of the peo- 
ple to the government and incoming ad- 
ministration. The effect of the shock was 
so great that business did not recover its 
former tone and volume for several days 

Toward the Kiiddle of April it was an- 
nounced that the Prejidenl's body would 
be brouglit through this city on its way to 
Springlield. Meetings were held, and ar- 
rangements made to give a suitable ex- 
pression of the respect entertained by the 
people for his memory. Tiie city Council 
endorsed the movemcni on the 17th of 
April, invited the autlioriiies of Cincin- 
n-\i\ and Louisville, and voted to defray 
the expenses. Many arches, beautifully 
decorated and drape !, were thrown across 
the streets on the line of the contemplated 
precession. Festoons of black, bound 
with wreaths of evergreens and immor- 
telles, were stretched at regular intervals 
across the streets, and from house to 
Louse. Many thousand yards of black 
and white fabrics, and car loads of ever- 
greens, were thus used on the streets, and 
on tlie State House and otlier public build- 
ings. All business houses and nearly all 
the dwellings in tlio city were more or 
less draped and ornamented, many of the 
decorations being very beautiful. Pic- 
tures and busts of the dead President, 
furled and draped tlag^, wreaths of ever- 
greens, mottoes and shields, were dis- 
playc'l everywhere, until the appearance 
of ilic city was startlingly transformed, 
The Siate House, under the rotunda of 

which the remains were to lie in state, 
was profusely and tastefully decorated, 
being wreathed with black and white, 
trimmed with evergreens and flowers, in- 
side and out. The haii was lined with 
black, relieved by stars, tlower wreaths, 
pictures, busts and flags. The gate en- 
trance was occupied bj- a beautiful quad- 
ruple arch, profusely draped and covered 
with mottoes. The fence all round the 
square was covered with festoons of ever- 
greens and tlowers. It was said by par- 
ties accompanying the cortege, that the 
decorations here were more extensive and 
beautiful than those at any other place on 
the route. 

The arrangements were completed late 
at night on the 20th of April, and the fu- 
neral cortege arrived by special train 
early on tlie 30th. A great civic and mil- 
itary funeral procession had been ar- 
ranged, and extensive preparations made 
for the visitors from other parts of the 
State, who were to come by special trains. 
These arrangements were defeated, and 
the crowd greatly lessened, by a cold, 
heavy rain, beginning on the night of tlie 
■20th and lasting all the ner.t day. The 
President's remains, removed from the 
train early in tlie morning, and placed on 
a large funeral car built for the purpose, 
were taken under military escort to the 
State House, where, during this and a 
part of the next day, they were visited hy 
mauy thousand persons, who, regardless of 
tlie driving storm, patiently waited their 
turn for hours, in long lines before the 

The decorations, though badly injured 
by the rain, were allowed to remain stand- 
ing for nearly a mouth, when they were 
removed, and the materials sold by order 
cf the Council. 

The war having closed the people de- 
sired the great commanders who had be- 
come prominent in it to visit tlie place, and 
in response to their invitations Generals 
Sherman and Grant visited the city in 
I'SijD. General Sherman arrived on the 
2jth of July, and was conducted througli 
the jjrincipal streets by a great civic and 
military procession to the State House 
yard, where he made an able speech to the 
people counselling peace, and earnest ef- 
forts to repair the damages caused by tlic 
war. lie held a reception and attended a 
banquet at Military Hall given by the 
former officers and soldiers of his com- 
mand. General Grant arrived in Septem- 
ber, and was received by the State nnJ 
city authorities and military forces with 
the honors accorded to the Commander-in- 
Chief of the American army. A great 
military and civic procession conducted 



Lim to the State House yard, -where he was 
■welcomed in fitting terms by the Governor, 
and bowed his acknowledgments with a 
few well chosen ■v\-ord3 to the public. He 
held a reception in the evening and atten- 
ded the banijuet at the Bates House at 

Amusements were numerous and con- 
stant iu the period intervening from 1861 
to ISCO. Nearly all the loading actors of 
the country appeared at the theater, which 
■wa? op'cu the greater part of each year, 
and constanlly crowdet.' by soldiers and 
strangers sojourning in the city. From 
lSG-1 to ISOtJ a museum -was kept bj' Mad- 
ame English in the Kinder building on 
east Washington street, and largely pat- 
ronised by the rural population ;iud sol- 
diers. Shows and circuses appeared regu- 
larly each summer to reap a full harvest, 
and negro minstrel bands and panoramas 
drew crowded houses. Sleight of hand and 
ledgerdemaiu were illustrated at .Masonic 
Hall, by Herman and Heller, the great 
masters in the art, exciting the wonder and 
adding to the enjoyment of their audi- 
ence.'. Concerts, operas and lectures had 
their full share of votaries, and fairs were 
revived for church and charitable pur- 
poses. A great fair was held in Septem- 
ber, lS'j-1, on the military grounds for the 
benefit of the Sanitary Commission, lasting 
one week, and realizing a large sum of 
money. Since the war ended amusements 
have been fewer and less well patronized, 
the hard times telling seriously upon them. 

The leading event in the musical line 
since the war was the annual German 
S&jngerfest, held about the middle of Sep- 
tember, ]8G7, lasting three or four days. 
The programme included processions, ad- 
dresses, vocal and instrumeutal concerts, a 
ball, displays of fireworks, etc. The ar- 
rangements were made by a committee 
under direction of the Manmsrchor of this 
city. A two story frame building, ninety 
or one hundred feet wide and one hundred 
and eighty feet long, was erected on the 
south east corner of Court Square. The 
floor was closely seated and wide galleries 
ran round three sides of the house, the 
whole afl'ording accommodations for three 
or four thousand spectators. The north 
end was occuj.ied by a wide raised plat- 
form for the orcliestra and singers, and the 
whole interior was profusely decorated 
■with pictures, wreaths, flags, mottoes, gas 
jets, etc. The exterior was also fully 
decorated and the roof surmounted with 
the fiags of all nations. Many buildings 
in the city were finely decorated with Hags 
and evergreens. The expenses were met 
by individual subscriptions, and an appro- 
priation of $1,600 from, the city treasury. 

The Fest was very successful pecuniarily 
and otherwise, a considerable sum being 
left on hand, and devoted afterwar i to 
charitable purposes. Thousands of visit- 
ors were in attendance. 

It has been stated heretofore that the 
four acre tract on the river bank south- 
west of the town, set aside for burial pur- 
poses by Judge Harrison, in 18:21, was for 
years the only cemetery, and that at sub- 
sequent periods two or three adjoining 
tracts were platted as cemeteries by differ- 
ent parties. These were rapidly filling up 
as tlie city increased in size, and it, becime 
evident that some further provision must 
be made for cemeteries at a greater dis- 
tance from the city. With this object in 
view, a number of gentlemen held a pre- 
liminary meeting on the I'ith of Septem- 
ber, 1803, to consult regarding the matter, 
and on the 2oth of September, an associa- 
tion was formed, with James M. Kay, 
President-, Tiieodore P. Haughey, Secre- 
tary, S. A. Fletcher, Jr., Treasurer, and 
with seven directors. S. A. Fletcher, Sr., 
offered to loan the necessary funds to 
purchase grounds, and a committee being 
appointed to select a site, soon after re- 
ported iu favor of purchasing the farm 
and nursery of .Martin Williams, three 
miles north-west of the city, on the Michi- 
gan road, together with several smaller 
adjoining tracts. The report was accepted, 
and the purchases made in the fall of 1SG3, 
and January, 1804, at prices ranging from 
3125 to .SoOO per acre, two hundred and 
fifty acres in all being secured at a cost of 
about S51,o00. The money was loaned to 
the association by Mr. Fletclier, with addi- 
tional amounts to begin the improvements. 
A survey was ordered and plats made iu 
October and November, and Mr. F. W. 
Chislett selected as Superintendent. He 
began the improvements in the spring of 
1804. The large trees were cut into logs, 
which were sawed by a portable" mill on 
the grounds, into lumber and fencing, with 
which the tract was enclosed. A gate 
lodge was built at the weitern entrance 
near the Michigan road, and in 1SG7, a 
large cottage residence for the Superintend- 
ent, was erected on the southern part of 
the grounds. The improvement of the car- 
riage ways and footpaths began in the 
spring of 1804, lots, irregular in plan and 
of various sizes, ranging from a few square 
feet to half an acre or more, were laid out. 
The grounds were dedicated in May or 
June, IfcOl, Albert S. White, delivering the 
oration. The first lot sale look place June 
8, by auction, the price of lots being fixed 
at twenty-five cents per square foot as a 
minimum. The price has been advanced 
several times at subsequent dates. 




Rules and regulations ■were adopted for 
the governmeut of the association and cem- 
etery, June 4, 1SG4. Eich lot-holder is in- 
terested in t!;e capital of ihe assoeiation to 
the value of his lot.. The lot-holders choose 
the ofiiccrs. No profits or dividends are 
allowed, and at'ter payment for the ground, 
(which has been fully made, (he loan being 
repaid to Mr. Fletcher,) all receipts are 
expended in the care and improvement of 
the cemetery. No fences or enclosures of 
lots are permitted, and the erection of great 
monuments is very properly discouraged. 
Notwithstanding this rule, the cemeter}' 
already shows too much marble for a 
strictly pleasing eifect. 

The improvements, consisting of gate 
lodges, superintendent's cottage, enclosing 
fences, carriage and foot ways, grading, 
sodding, grubbing, Sic., have been rapidly 
forwarded since the spriwg of ]Su4, cover- 
ing forty or tifty acres near the liill, and 
already the cenetery compares well wiili 
older ones near othcrcitics. The hill itself — 
formerly called Sand hill, and now known 
as Crown hill, giving name to the ceme- 
tery — covers a base of twelve or fifteen 
acres, and is over one hundred feel high. 
It is yet unimproved, and it is proposed to 
use it as the site for the receiving reser- 
voir in the contemjdated system of water- 
TTorks. Water is an excellent absorbent of 
gases arising from the decomposition of 
decaying bodies, and vrater consumers 
would be constantly reminded of their de- 
parted ancestors, by the taste and smell of 
their daily beverage. 

A line of omnibuses was established to 
the grounds in 18G4, but the facilities for 
reaching the spot were not thought sutli- 
cient, and in the spring of Ib'tiO, proposi- 
tions were made to extend the street rail- 
road from the terminus at the north end of 
Illinois street, to the cemetery. The resi- 
dents in the neighborhood, the cemetery 
board of directors, and the street railroad 
company finally made the necessary ar- 
rangements, and the line was completed 
during the fall of IS^'^O and spring of 1807, 
and opened for travel in .\pril or May. 

In .May, ISOG, the board dedicated a tract 
of ground to the government, for the inter- 
ment of the Union soldiers buried in the 
vicinity of the city. The grant was ac- 
cepted, and during the fall and following 
spring, the transfer of the bodies wus 
effected under the direction of the govern- 
ment authorities, and the spot dedicated 
v.'ith appropriate ceren.onies. On the 30th 
of May, ISoS, itndcr a general order issued 
by Gen. Logan, commander of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, a grand ovation was 
paid to tlie memory of the Union dead. 
Arrangements had been made by appro- 

priate committees. The ladies labored 
zealously in preparing the floral tributes. 
.\ procession marched to the grounds, which 
were thrnrged by several thousand specta- 
tors, and after an address, singing and 
other preliminary exercises, each grave was 
wreathed and strewed with tlowers by 
^•oung ladies, and orphans of deceased sol- 
diers. The demonstration was a grand 
success, the only drawback being the diS- 
culty experienced by many in reaching 
and returning from the grounds. Business 
was generally suspended, and the day ob- 
served as a holiday. It is probable iliat 
the ceremony will be continued annually 

This article mny close with a rapid and 
brief mention of the more important acts 
of the city government from 1>01 to 1S67. 
The mayor, in May 18'j2, called the at- 
tention of the Council to the number of 
abandoned vromen incarcerated iu the jail, 
and the bad results arising from such a 
course toward them, lie recommended 
the erection of a house of refuse to wiiich 
they could be sent, and in which a reform- 
atory treatment could be pursued. Noth- 
ing, however, was done at the time witli 
the project. On the 27th of July, 1>63, S. 
A. Fletcher, Sr., submitted a proposition to 
the Council, offering to give seven or 
eight acres of ground south of the city as 
a site, provided the city would agree to 
erect the buildings. Estimates, by D. A. 
Bohlen, architect, were also filed, fixing 
I the cost of the house at §8,000, and a Citi- 
I zens Committee, at the same time, asked 
that the proposed enterprise should bo 
! committed to the care of the Sisters of the 
I Good Shepherd. The donation was ac- 
cepted by the Council .August 10th ; 5-3,000 
I were appropriated toward the house, 
! Avhich was to be used partly as a house of 
I refuge for abandoned and drunken women, 
! and partly as a city prison for females. 
I Plans were submitted and adopted on the 
I 24th of .August. The house was put in 
t charge of the building committee, and a 
1 board of three trustees provided for. Con- 
I tracts were let in the fall, and during the 
I next year the basement story was finished 
I in good style. The rapid advance in ma- 
j terial and labor caused great loss to the 
i contractor, and difhculty ensued between 
I hira and the city. The work stopped and 
j has ever since been suspended. The en- 
I tire cost thus far being about 5"^,0o0. Good 
! faith to the generous donor of the site, and 
; charity to the class provided for by the en- 
terprise demand the speedy completion 
of the buildings. 

A society for the amelioration of the 
condition o'f fallen women was formed in 
ISOG, with a board of trustees and direc- 

! f 



tors and a list of officers. Aid was also to ! walks payed; three miles were lighted. 
be extcDded to worthy and friendless fe- j lu IbGT onehundred and ninety-fivehcuises, 
males. A house was rented in the north \ costing $770,470, were built, and five bun- 
part of the second ward as a home for the I dred and tifty-two permits for repairs, 
friendless, an 1 a home for those wishing ! costing S13"2,0-j0 were issued; four and 
to escape the life of infamy to which they j one-half miles of streets and nine of side- 
seemed coudL'inned. It was placed in ' walks were graded aud graveled; four 
charge of .Mrs. .^arah Smith as matron, and I squares were bouldercd, and twenty-two 
has since slieltered many of tliis unfortu- \ squares of side-walks paved ; four and one- 
nate class. Some have been entirely . half miles of streets were lighted. The 
reclaimed, and the institution seems des- ; members of the board receive pay for the 
tined to effect much good. Material aid { time actually employed, and the clerk re- 
has recently been asked from the Council, ! ceives fees for the permits issued. 
and it is not improbable that to the society Under the provisions of the iucopora- 
will be given the charge of the house of I tion act, the council, on the 1st of October, 
refuge when that building is completed. ! 1SG4, nominated L. Vanlandingham, A. 
The city ordinance required parties ! Naltner, James Sulgrove, 1>. S. Beatty and 
building housci^ to obtain special permis- ' D. V. CuUoy as a board of city comraission- 
sion before obstructing the streets with i ers, to assess damages and benefits from 
materials. These applications consumed | the opening of new streets or alleys, or 
much time in the council, and to avoid ; the cutting of sewers or new channels for 
further trouble from this source, an ordi- j streams. The nominations were confirmed 
nance establishing a board of public im- I soon after by the common pleas court, and 
provements was introduced in the fall of ] applications of that nature have since been 
1863. It. remained pending for several j referred to that board. 

months, and on tlie 19th of .4.pri], lSG-4, | The many troops and prisoners stationed 
another ordinance was substituted and pas- i here had caused uneasiness aiiiong medical 
sed, creating a board of [lublic improve- : men for fear of sudden epidemics. The 
nients, to be composed of three members ; prevalence of measles, small pox and 
annually selected from the council. They cholera liad been prevented b}' care and 
were to choose one of their number presi- 

dent, and the city clerk was to be their 
secretary. All projects connected with the 

prompt attention — small pox cases beinj 
treated in a small building on the hospital 
grounds. In January, lSi34, however, cases 

public buildings, market houses, bridges, i of small pox became quite numerous not 
culverts, sewers, drains, cisterns, street | only among the troops, hut in different 
improvements, parks, gas lighting, water- i parts of the city; and in February, the 
works, &.C., were to be referred to them for I government and city authorities rented 
examination, and all work wa.s to be exe- \ ground and built a pest house on the river, 
cuted under their direction. They were i two miles north-west of town. Further 
to report their action in all cases to the ; cases were promptly sent there, and the 
council. Persons intending to build, re- j spread of the disease was soon checked, 
pair or remove houses, were to get permits 1 After the war the government turned the 
from the board, giving the location, cost, j house over to the city, and the ground was 
&c., of the proposed work, and a register '• afterward bought and deeded to the city, 
was to be kept and reported of the permits. \ December '23d, 1SG5. 

The board made no anni-.ul report for j Fvepcated complaints of the inefficient 
1SG4, and the extent and value of the im- ' drainage on Illinois street and elsewhere, 
provements for that year can not be given ; I and of the damage caused by \ irginia 
but in 1SG5 they reported thai one hundred | river, Pogue's run and Lake .McCarty, had 
and fifty houses costing .■^200,000, were | been made to the council. Various plans 
built in the Additions, and one thousand ! for improving the drainage at small ex- 
four hundred and seventy-one permits is- j pense, had been proposed and considered 
sued for buildings and repairs in the city. ] at difl^rent liuies without result, and sew- 
costing SI, SOU, 000. Nine miles of streets ' ers had been advocated on particular streets. 
aud eighteen of side-walks were graded j The council in July, ISGo, selected James 
and graveled; one mile of street was j W. Brown, F- Stein and L. B. Vi ilson as a 
bouldered, aud four miles of side-walk | board of engineers to take levels on all 
paved; three miles of streets were lighted. ! the streets, and devise a general system of 
In 18GG permits for one thousand one hun- I sewers for the city. Money was appro- 
dred and twelve houses, costing Sl,OGo, 000, I printed for the work, and the survey and 
were issued; eight and one-half miles of i profile was made during the fall. The ex- 
streets and sixteen of side-walks graded | pense involved had hitherto prevented the 
and graveled; three and a half squares of j building of any regular sewers, btit a tax 
streets bouldered, and two miles of side- ! of fifteen cents was levied in May, 18G8, 


for a sewerase f"nid, and the cuiiiicil is 
now consMeiitig the prop'ielj of builJing | 
sewers to drain Lnke MeCarty and provide | 
ng;irui>t floods in Virginii riv«'r. The res 
ideuts in the seventh and eighth wards | 
along the course of the bist n .med ba\ou j 
hiive been repeaiC'llj' drowned out. 'J'iie i 
trouble is iiicreasiiig every year with the j 
ruLiid >ettlenieut and improvement i<i that 
section, and hirge cbiiras for damages are 
now pending against the cily, with the 
proi^pect of many more in future. Some 
of them have already been decided against ! 
the city by iJie courts. 

A l;irgc number o{ additions adjaiuing 
the C'jrporation limits liad been thickly 
settled, and the parties who lived in litem 
were doing biisiiie.'SS in the city, and had 
the advantages of the city government and 
improvements without coutributing bj' tax- 
ation to tile city finances. It was proposed 
iu l^H.j to annex them to the city, under 
the provisions of the incorporation act, 
and an ordinance to include the aaditious 
on tlie north line of the city was intro- 
duced iu the council, but while it was 
pending a remonstrance from tlie parlies 
interested was presented against the ratas- 
iire, demanding that all the addition'^ 
should be included. A new or.iinance, 
therefore, wa» drawn up and introduced iu 
December, ISbo, providing for the annexa- 
tion by name of forty -tive separate addi- 
tions adjoining the city on the north, east 
and South sides. The me^isure vras resist- 
ed by the people of t!ie additions, and the 
council, after consideraciou of the expense 
ill volved for police and oilier items for <he 
new territory, let the matter drop for the 

During 18G5, sever^il former railway en- 
terprizes, suspended by hard times or by 
the war, were revived, and in May, 1 8t3l), 
petitions, largely signed by the citizens, 
were pitsenied to the council, asking a sub- 
ficiipiion by ihe city to the ^'luceuues, In- 
diana &, Illinois Central, and Crawlords- 
ville lines, to enable them to construct their 
roads. The petitions being laid over for 
additional signatures, they were soon ob- 
tained by committees, and on the "ilst of 
.May, the council voted to issue $I5'I,UL>0 in 
twenty year bonds, in sums of i^l.U'.iO each, 
to be dividt-d as follows: SiJUOUO to the 
Vincennes road, S4o,U<>0 to each of the 
other lines, and at a subsequent date the 
same amount was voted to the Junction 
road. The companies were first to finish 
foriy miles of road inside of three years, 
favor the city in freights, and comply with 
oihcr conditions. Work was afterward be- 
gun, and has been .actively prosecuted on 
all eicept the ludinna and illinoia Central, 
the Juuction road being completed, and 

the Vincennes well advaoced at the present 

Several serious accidents having occurred 
l)y collisions between street cars and other 
vehicles, with trains on the Union track, 
the council on thu 5th of Feb'-uary. ISGb. 
ordered the employment of llngmen by tlie 
railro<d company at each crossing: it be- 
ing their duty to constantly watch the 
train--, and warn all panics of their Ap- 
proach. The company at once complied 
with the ordinance, and since that lime 
few or no accidents have happened. 

During the summer of IfOb, to get rid 
of the heavy charges made fur boarding 
city prisoners in tiie couniy j lil, the coun- 
cil determined to build a Station hou.?e, and 
after examining various siics, hoiight a lot 
iu September, on .^laIyland, between Penn- 
sylvania and Meridian, at $4,000. No 
subsequent effort has been made to build 
the house. Propositions were made at 
about the same lime to reijt buildings for 
tlie cily ofiices, or sell lots for the site of a 
city hall. The Second Presbyterian church 
was offered at .Slo.UO), in bonds. Ihe 
Journ-il company offered to build a block 
next their oMice, and Andrew Wallace ten- 
dered his building. The council declined 
all these proposals, and resolved not to 
build H hall till the debt was paid. 

On the "iQth of October, ISGG, the coun- 
cil passed the eight liour law. The ques 
tion arose, (but was ignored,) whether it 
applied to tiie oflicers ami police. It was 
■ipplied by the street coinnnssioner in his 
ilepirtmeut, but as he reduced the wages 
in the same proportion, trouble ensued 
with the employees, who resisted the re- 
duction in their pay. The commissioner 
applied to the council for instructions, but 
was advised to use his own discretion in 
the matter. The ten hour system lias since 
been restored. 

The names of the streets were ordered to 
be put on the lamps in November, Ib'JG. In 
December, piopositious for an alarm tele- 
graph were received from several parties, 
hut declined, and the arrangement was 
iinally completed in 18ii7-"68, as stated in 
the history of the fire department. In 
February, 18G7, the Vincennes railroad and 
Indiana[>olis Furnace company, were au- 
thorized to lay tracks on Kentucky avenue. 
The corner stone of the Catholic Cftihe- 
dral, on Tennessee street, was laid with 
appropriate ceremonies, on the 20th of 
July, ISoT, in presence of a vast audience. 
The building will be of brick, v.-ith white 
stone facings, and is in the regular gothio 
style, with nave, transept, center and side 
aisles, high altar, and great eastern win- 
dow. It is about 50 by 105 feet, will be 
very solidly built, and is to have the high- 




esl spire in tlie country. The W'llls nre 
now being canstrnoted, hut S"veriil years 
will e!a|s>- before its ciuiipletion. T!ie es- 
liiuiiied co'et is over JGOU.DOO. It will be 
the birgest religions ediHce in the Sinie. 

The nutiior regrets that, he has failed lo 
procure the facts connected with the orgnn- 
izution of the several Outholic churches, 
Fchools, nnd societies in the city, nnd will 
therefore j_'ive generally 6ucli information 
as he h'ls obtuined. 

St. Joiin's Clnircb, on west Georgia 
street, :i small, plain, hiick edifice, built 
nbur.t 18-Ji1, is the oldest one heie. It has 
a large number of communicnnts, nnd is in 
charge of Rev. August Bessonies, who suc- 
ceeded Rev. Daniel .Malotiey. St. Mary's 
Church, under Rev. Simon Seigrirt, whs 
built in 1858, on east Marylnnd street, rear 
Delaware, and has many communicants, 
mosily Germans. St Peter's Ghuri.h, on 
Uouglieriy sinet, near Virginia avenue, 
was built about 18f>5, and is in charge of 
Rev. Jdsepli Petit. Flourishing Sablraih 
schools aie attached to each of these chuich- 
es, nnd ii number of ciiurch and charitable 
gucieiies are also directly or indirectly con- 
necled with them. 

St. John's Academy for girls, in charge 
of the Sisters of Providence, is siiuHted on 
Georgia and Tennessee streets, adjoining 
the Taihedral and St. Jolm's Church. Th" 
buildiiigs, (erected aboni ) StiO, ) are w nil de- 
signed, ami the schoul is bnge, wtll con- 
ducted and prosperous. St. . John's .Acade- 
my fur hove, east of St. John's chuich, is 
in the care of Kev. August Bessonits. Si. 
Mary's .Academy for boys, on the nllcy 
poulli of St Mary's church, is of brick, and 
thiee s'oiies high. A school for young 
child-en in clia i ge of .M is Keating, is siip- 
poitcd by the St. Peter's church congrega- 

The writer reglected to state in its pro- 
per pi !CC, ihe fact a very large and 
flouri.'^liing private Gfrnian sclio"! lias been 
conducted tor ten or eleven yeais past, oti 
east Maryland street, between Delawaie 
and A lab. ma streets. The school-house, 
(origiiially small.) was much eulaiged, 
and improved in -its arrangements two or 
three years since. Several hundied pupils 
are in attendance. 

The Saturday Evening Mirror, a literary 
weekly journal, was first issued Dt^cemher 
22d, IStiT, from an office in Sclinull's 
building, by Ilrirding & Henry: Georjre C. 
Harding, the former noted war correspond- 
ent of the Cincinrititi Couimercinl, arid the 
loc'il editor of the Journal and of the Sen- 
tinel, at subsequent perioija, being editor. 
It w.-is pnldislied on Sunday for a shoit 
lime, but the Sentinel bcjinning the issue 
of a Sunday paper, the publication day of 

the Mirror was changed to Saturday. J. 

R. Morton subscciuenily bought Heniy's 

interest, the office was removed to Tilfiid's 

' tiuilding, on t?ircle street, nnd the paper is 

now is.'^ued by liiruing & Morton, wiih G. 

C Harding and W. B. Vickei^. as editors. 

It has been much enlarged, is well con- 

I ducted, and has steadily advanced in pub- 

I lie favor. 

I The commissioners in the original snr- 
[ vey mac'e no provision for a public park, 
and wiih the exception of the squares or 
parts o; sqiiarts. reserved for S^aie, Coun- 
ty, Hosjiiial, Univeisity and Market pur- 
poses, no [uiblic t^quare was designnied. So 
long ns the town was openly builr. and the 
wide streets properly shaded, the want of 
public grounds whs unfelt, but in rccer.t 
years, with the crowding of populaiiou and 
the paving of the streets, the increased 
noise, dust and beat, diew attention to a 
want formerly unctinsidercd. 'I'hc city toi.k 
possession of the Circle, University square, 
and inilitaiy grounds, in ISGO, and since 
that date has expended coiisideralde sums 
in the improvement and planting of each 
as public grounds, but the limited area af- 
foided by these tracts will not supply the 
future demand for a properly constructed 
and ornamented park. 'J'o supply in some 
measure this public want, and as a mcii.o- 
lial of Calvin Fletcher, Sr., the heirs of 
that gentleman, in the spring of 18b8. of- 
fered to donate tliiny acies in a triangular 
f(irm, adjoining the Dellefon taine railway 
•it the north-east corner of liie city, for n 
public paik; the city in case of accept- 
ance, lo expend the sum of S3O,000 on it 
in improvements within a given period. 
Tiie ofter was at fi^st lavorably consideied 
by the council, but unexpected opp'^siiion 
arose, partly on account of the location, 
partly on account of ihe eipcndiiure to be 
incurred, nnd partly fioni the jealousy of 
ihe sfctions not thus favored. Afier lung 
cou-ideraiion, the city council courded 
I other conditions with the acceptance ot ilu> 
I don.iiion, and the offer was withdrawn. 
I This result is to be regretted, fur suoli 
i tracts will ultimately be iteded, not only 
in that ncighboi hood, but elsew-lieie, nnd 
I they should be secuied while the ground 

is comparatively die 'p. 

I A brief statement of the facts connected 

! with the foimaiion of the leading libraries 

I in the city may be given here. First in 

I importance, both for the variety and num- 

I bcr of volumes it contain", is the colleciion 

rn.ade by the Stale, now placed in ih*; lower 

rooms of the State house. Its fuimalion 

began shortly after the organization ot 'lie 

Slate guvernineiit, though but little hail 

been achieved until after the erection of 

the State Louse. The few books prior to 



tliat lifxte hnd V>eeQ kept in the Court house 
(inJ Circle builtiing. It 1k\s since grHdii 
ally incrcised, by (loiintioiis. oxcluinpcs 
and {iiuchiises, (a. small nppiopriaiion be- 
ing annually made for the purpose.) until 
it now n'lmoers between twenty-five and 
thirty-thousand voliitnes. Mtiny of these 
are in foreign lantjuuecs, gifts fiotn foreign 
governments. Tt-.e lilirary was at first 
used both for reference and circulation 
The Stale officers, legislators, judiciary, at- 
lorneys and professional men only being 
eniitled to take books out, though any one 
could use them for retcrencc at the library 
rootii The circulating feature was after- 
wnid abandoned, it being fuiind that valu- 
able sets were broken, and lUiiny bnok.s an- 
nually losl. The library is Weil supjlied 
with woi ks in the sevei al departments, and 
contains some rare and Viiluable books. 
Tlinugli in belter comliiion now than in 
foiHier years, it has never been as well ar 
rai'ged and cat.ilogiied as it should be. 
The several rooms on the west side of the 
State hou-e are now occupied by ilie libra- 
ry, and by the tropliiis and flags collected 
and returi cd liy Indi-.ina regiments in the 
Mexican war, and war of the lebellioii 

B. t'. Foster, Gordon Tanner, S. L>. Lyon. 
R D. liiown, Nathaniel liolion, J hn B. 
Itillon, John Cook and others, have been 
the librarians. 

Tlie collection of bonks for the County 
libiary began shorily atier the organiza 
tion of the county, two j)er cent, of the lot- j 
fund Sillies bei':g set apai-t for that purpose, ! 
and thoiij.h many of llie original books j 
have been losl or worn out, the libraiy has I 
slowly and constantly inciea.«ed until it 
now nnnibeis over two thousand volumes 
It has been located in the upper room of j 
Court houfie for innny yiars, and bfs been | 
in charge of James A. Ilamilion. John W j 
ILunilton, Calvin lav lor, John Caveii and \ 
oiheis, as lihniriniis. Peveiity-five cents i 
fee per year is charged for the use of books. | 
and the library, wliich is well selected and j 
Valuable, is largely pationized, l)Ut it de- 
serves even more uitentiou iLau it re- 

Ihe township library, foijneily kept in 
!lie ujiper rooms of the Court house, b. t 
more recently in the third siory of HeiethV 
block, was loinied under the law of 1^52, 
providing tor the formation of .'•ikIi col'.ec- 
tions, and levying laxis tor i heir puichase 
and maintenance, li i, nnjbered a lout two 
thousand volumes of genpi ;illy well seliet- 
C'l works, but many of the vcjlumes Imvc 
since been lost and d'snoyed, and not over 
twelve or fourteen hundred are now ic- 
laincd. It is free lo all iea<leis, who c»n 
l^'ke out books if they choose, and is ver_) 
Well piitroiiized. 

The Indianapolis Library Society, the 
first private library association heie, wa'* 
foimed in 1827, and collected by donation, 
subscription and purchase, a considerabip 
number of good bo'jks, which weie lucaied 
the greater pait of the lime the organiza- 
tion existed, in the Circle building, and 
used by the members. Obed Foote, Sr , 
was the librarian. The greater pari of the 
volumes were lost, ami the rest divided, 
>ind the nigaiiizaiioD died after seven or 
eight yeais. 

The next private library was collected 
hy the Union Literary Society, formed in 
183'), and existing till 1851. This collec- 
tion consisted of several hundred books, 
for the use of the members, and after the 
death of tiie society, w>is lianded over to 
the Young Men's Christian .Association. 

The Young .Men's Christian Associati(u 
formed in 1854, soon afterward began the 
eolleciion of a library, receiving the books 
of the Union Literary Society, and adding 
thereto until about 1.500 volumes aie now 
found in their looins, under charge of Rev. 
Mr. Armsiiong, librarian. 

The Young Men's Librniy Association, 
formed in 18Go, shortly thereafter esiuli- 
lishfd a reafiing room in the third story of 
Hubbard's block, gave annual courses of 
lectures, and began the foimation of a li- 
brary, which nt present includes about t wo 
hiindied volumes, mostly current magazine 
literaiuie. The annual fee requiied of 
membeis is 5-5, entitling the holder lo ihe 
use of the library and leading room, and 
aitendaijce dining the annual course of 
Icctuies. John Caven, has bi en president 
of the association since its origin. 

The Ames Institute, a liieiary, Ifcture 
and library society, loimed in 18G0, hsis 
since acciiniulated a library of sboui fi^e 
huiidrtd volumes, now stored at the society 
loom in ^V'esley CliMpel, Carl Hamlin is 
piesideni of the oignnization. 

Tlie wiiter has now brietly considered 
the hading cvenis in the piogiessof the 
cuy from its first settlement to the pieseni 
time, lliis consideration has shown that 
it has passed thiough tour separate periods 
of development. 'Ihe tiist began in the 
icmporHty ref>utntion and piosperiiy enjoy- 
ed by the town wlieii selected in 182ii, as 
the seal of govei ntiieni. The location im- 
mediately diawing a relaiively large jiop- 
nlaiion Ijeie, when the stinounding coin- 
iry was a complete wildeitiess. 'Ihe slow 
development of a region so heavily tim- 
bered, the sickness an ong the early settlers, 
the delay in establishing the goveinmenl 
here, and the want of communication wiih 
the outside woild, put a stop to this speedy- 
advance, and though the Capital was atter- 
w: rd removed here, very little impiovc- 



mrnt in t!it^ prosppcts of ilie town took citizens of other sections to do iliat wliich 
])lnce. T'lo Internil Iinpiovemeut scbonie 1 so clearij devolves upon fhem. 

in 1836, t>Cfc>iii the second cm, and for the 
liirie conipleiely ciirint^ied the' aspect of af- 
fiiiis. Another suilden Hdv:ince occurred. 

This sketch is now ended. No apology 
is needed for ilie etl'orl to wri'e it, hut one 
is due for lite miiuner in which the task 

A marked increase in trade, in popnl ition. i hns been executed. When tiie writer coc- 
and in wealth, wns vir-ihle, and the town i sented to undertake it, he intended to give 
WHS assuming an iinporlani rank, when the merely- a general review of the progress of 
fHilurennd suspension of the public works ! the city from its setilemeut, (levising, 
cut ;^hort its c.ireer. lis subsequent zrowth , correciinix sind extending nn artitde he hud 
was very s'ow, being governed by the de- | prepared for the Directory of 1S.J7.) and 
veiopment of the surioundiiig territory, Hnil : limiting the sketch to forty-eight pages. 
it remained a country vllage of the better', i'he material collected soon compelled an 
class, till October, 1847. The completion : eiilargement of the work, and finally much 
of tiie .Madison railroad in t!i)it month ami j care was needed to prevent its expansion 
year, began the third era, giving the town j to a volume. All attempt at enibellisb- 
an oiiilei, anij making it a center for the ! ment by personal sketches or anecdote, 
surplus products of the surrounding re- | wiis abandoned, and the author's sole aim 
gion. From that tim-e till the war of the ; was to crowd the greatest number of facts, 
rebellion, i:.s growth was steady, rapid and i important or unitnportant, into the fewest 
solid, and the foundation gradually luid j words, t!ie object being to perpetuate matter 
for its fiituie trade, but it still remained ; that wouhl soon be irrecoverably lost. To 
subordit'ate to other bii-iiness centers. The ! this cause must be ascribed the careless 
fourth period began with the war in IStJl, style, the piragrajihic character of tiie con- 
liie place being ai first stopped in its devel- \ tents, and the repetition of the ^ame facts 
opment, but soon adv>icniiig with a rapidity ; in different connections. Many of these 
astounding to those wlio hatl been educated j repetitions were necessary, but others, es- 
only by their early experiences here, and I pecially in the last half of the work, arose 
who cons'atitly predicted a downfall 'i'he ! from the fact that several compositors were 
war grrowth, ihougli so rapid, was a healthy \ constantly wanting " copy,'' and as fast ns 
one. It. was the direct result of a large j the manuscript was prepared, it went to the 
tiHile, and the fact that a greater scope I printer, and not being again seeu by the 
of territory was made tributary to the city, j writer, some repetitions unavoidably oc- 
and had manufacturing been largely com- j ciirred. The collection of material and its 
ntenced at the close of the wht, no pcrma- | preparation for tlie press, has been done r^t 
nent cessation of the trade and growth of j night, or in leisure moments, amid the 
the place w ould liave occurred. The four j press of other matters. It has involved 
periods of development in the history of j much rapid and exhausting labor, and 
the city show that just as facilities for i tlioucfh errors have doubtless been corn- 

trade and travel have been increased, just 
60 certain and constant lias been itssubse- 
qizent growth. Merchjuus and nuinufac- 
tiirers should apply tlie lesson, and not only 
aid every effort to open new cimnnels, but go 
before, and interest themselves in the trade 

mitted. the author trusts he has recovered 
so much that was almost lost, that crudities 
in style and inaccuracies in atatemenl will 
be forgiven. 

Tiie amhor would return his thanks to 
the old citizens who assisted him bv their 

nnd products of tiie region to be traversed I personal statement of facts, and espe- 
by them. A great trsiding and manufac- | cially to the heirs of the late Calvin 
liiriog cetiter may be created here by pro- ' Fletcher, for the use of the files of papers 
per effort, and the destiny of tlie city rests 1 collected and let't by that gentleman, Ircm 
directly in the haiids now controlling its | wiiich. far more than fiom any other 
active business. On the meichauts, bank ! source, the f.icis were secured on which 
eis and manufHCturers, rests the respotisi i tnis article is founded, 
bility for its fiituie growth or decadence 1 Iqnatics Brown. 

and tlioy can not escape it by waiting for j